Salacia – Salacia reticulata, Salacia oblonga


  1. A study on the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of an ayurvedic drug Rajanyamalakadi in diabetic patients.
  2. Muraoka O, et al. Quantitative analysis of neosalacinol and neokotalanol, another two potent α-glucosidase inhibitors from Salacia species, by LC-MS with ion pair chromatographyJ Nat Med. (2011)
  3. Oe H, Ozaki S. Hypoglycemic effect of 13-membered ring thiocyclitol, a novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata)Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. (2008)
  4. Antidiabetogenic constituents from Salacia species.
  5. Somwong P, Suttisri R, Buakeaw A. A new 1,3-diketofriedelane triterpene from Salacia verrucosaFitoterapia. (2011)
  6. Gao HY, et al. New triterpenes from Salacia hainanensis Chun et How with α-glucosidase inhibitory activityJ Asian Nat Prod Res. (2010)
  7. Ozaki S, Oe H, Kitamura S. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Kothala-himbutu (Salacia reticulata WIGHT)J Nat Prod. (2008)
  8. Yoshikawa M, et al. Salacia reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents with lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild antiobesity effects in ratsJ Nutr. (2002)
  9. Yoshikawa M, et al. Polyphenol constituents from Salacia species: quantitative analysis of mangiferin with alpha-glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activitiesYakugaku Zasshi. (2001)
  10. Nakamura S, et al. Chemical structures and hepatoprotective effects of constituents from the leaves of Salacia chinensisChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2011)
  11. Yoshikawa M, et al. New triterpene constituents, foliasalacins A(1)-A(4), B(1)-B(3), and C, from the leaves of Salacia chinensisChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2008)
  12. Shimada T, et al. Salacia reticulata inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytesJ Ethnopharmacol. (2011)
  13. Shimada T, et al. Metabolic disease prevention and suppression of fat accumulation by Salacia reticulataJ Nat Med. (2010)
  14. Huang TH, et al. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: activation of PPAR-alphaToxicol Appl Pharmacol. (2006)
  15. Li Y, Huang TH, Yamahara J. Salacia root, a unique Ayurvedic medicine, meets multiple targets in diabetes and obesityLife Sci. (2008)
  16. Huang TH, et al. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac PPAR-alpha-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genesToxicol Appl Pharmacol. (2006)
  17. Aqueous Extract of Kotahla Himbutu (Salacia reticulata) Stems Promotes Oxygen Comsumption and Supresses Body Fat Accumulation in Mice.
  18. Akase T, et al. Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD MiceEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2011)
  19. Tanabe G, et al. In silico design, synthesis and evaluation of 3′-O-benzylated analogs of salacinol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor isolated from an Ayurvedic traditional medicine “Salacia”Chem Commun (Camb). (2012)
  20. Yoshikawa M, et al. Kotalanol, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure, from antidiabetic ayurvedic medicine Salacia reticulataChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (1998)
  21. Williams JA, et al. Extract of Salacia oblonga lowers acute glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetesAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  22. Jayawardena MH, et al. A double blind randomised placebo controlled cross over study of a herbal preparation containing Salacia reticulata in the treatment of type 2 diabetesJ Ethnopharmacol. (2005)
  23. Heacock PM, et al. Effects of a medical food containing an herbal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy adultsJ Am Diet Assoc. (2005)
  24. Collene AL, et al. Effects of a nutritional supplement containing Salacia oblonga extract and insulinogenic amino acids on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and breath hydrogen responses in healthy adultsNutrition. (2005)
  25. Sikarwar MS, Patil MB. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Salacia chinensis root extracts in triton-induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic ratsIndian J Pharmacol. (2012)
  27. Sekiguchi Y, et al. Anti-proliferative effects of Salacia reticulata leaves hot-water extract on interleukin-1β-activated cells derived from the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis model miceBMC Res Notes. (2012)
  28. Parekh RB, et al. Association of rheumatoid arthritis and primary osteoarthritis with changes in the glycosylation pattern of total serum IgGNature. (1985)
  29. Funk JL, et al. Synovium as a source of increased amino-terminal parathyroid hormone-related protein expression in rheumatoid arthritis. A possible role for locally produced parathyroid hormone-related protein in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritisJ Clin Invest. (1998)
  30. Seki M, et al. Beneficial effect of galectin 9 on rheumatoid arthritis by induction of apoptosis of synovial fibroblastsArthritis Rheum. (2007)
  31. Li Y, et al. Salacia oblonga improves cardiac fibrosis and inhibits postprandial hyperglycemia in obese Zucker ratsLife Sci. (2004)
  32. The Ayurvedic Medicine Salacia oblonga Attenuates Diabetic Renal Fibrosis in Rats: Suppression of Angiotensin II/AT1 Signaling.
  33. Palani S, et al. Nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of Salacia oblonga on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in ratsNat Prod Res. (2011)
  34. Singh RG, et al. Nephroprotective role of salacia chinensis in diabetic CKD patients: A pilot studyIndian J Med Sci. (2010)
  35. Tsukioka D, et al. Structural characterization of lipid A obtained from Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharideFEMS Microbiol Lett. (1997)
  36. Kohchi C, et al. Applications of lipopolysaccharide derived from Pantoea agglomerans (IP-PA1) for health care based on macrophage network theoryJ Biosci Bioeng. (2006)
  37. Pusey PL. Effect of nectar on microbial antagonists evaluated for use in control of fire blight of pome fruitsPhytopathology. (1999)
  38. Asis CA Jr, Adachi K. Isolation of endophytic diazotroph Pantoea agglomerans and nondiazotroph Enterobacter asburiae from sweetpotato stem in JapanLett Appl Microbiol. (2004)
  39. Miao Y, et al. In vitro adsorption revealing an apparent strong interaction between endophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19 and host riceCurr Microbiol. (2008)
  40. Marshall JC. Lipopolysaccharide: an endotoxin or an exogenous hormoneClin Infect Dis. (2005)
  41. Nakata K, et al. A mixture of Salacia oblonga extract and IP-PA1 reduces fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levelsNutr Res Pract. (2011)