Rybí olej


  1. Burhani MD, Rasenick MM. Fish oil and depression: The skinny on fatsJ Integr Neurosci. (2017)
  2. Stark KD, et al. Comparison of bloodstream fatty acid composition from African-American women at gestation, delivery, and postpartumJ Lipid Res. (2005)
  3. Wei MY, Jacobson TA. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysisCurr Atheroscler Rep. (2011)
  4. Axelrod L, et al. Effects of a small quantity of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular risk factors in NIDDM. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, controlled studyDiabetes Care. (1994)
  5. Annuzzi G, et al. A controlled study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patientsAtherosclerosis. (1991)
  6. Boberg M, et al. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitusEur J Clin Invest. (1992)
  7. Oelrich B, Dewell A, Gardner CD. Effect of fish oil supplementation on serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and LDL subfractions in hypertriglyceridemic adultsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2011)
  8. Clark WF, et al. Fish oil in lupus nephritis: clinical findings and methodological implicationsKidney Int. (1993)
  9. Davidson MH, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of adding prescription omega-3 fatty acids 4 g/d to simvastatin 40 mg/d in hypertriglyceridemic patients: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyClin Ther. (2007)
  10. onnor WE, et al. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in adult-onset diabetes without adverse glucose controlAnn N Y Acad Sci. (1993)
  11. Maki KC, et al. Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemiaProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2011)
  12. Krebs JD, et al. Additive benefits of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and weight-loss in the management of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight hyperinsulinaemic womenInt J Obes (Lond). (2006)
  13. Simão AN, et al. Blood pressure decrease with ingestion of a soya product (kinako) or fish oil in women with the metabolic syndrome: role of adiponectin and nitric oxideBr J Nutr. (2012)
  14. Ramel A, et al. Moderate consumption of fatty fish reduces diastolic blood pressure in overweight and obese European young adults during energy restrictionNutrition. (2010)
  15. Campbell F, et al. A systematic review of fish-oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertensionEur J Prev Cardiolog. (2012)
  16. Morgan WA, Raskin P, Rosenstock J. A comparison of fish oil or corn oil supplements in hyperlipidemic subjects with NIDDMDiabetes Care. (1995)
  17. Cazzola R, et al. Age- and dose-dependent effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid-rich oil on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male subjectsAtherosclerosis. (2007)
  18. Rizza S, et al. Fish oil supplementation improves endothelial function in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetesAtherosclerosis. (2009)
  19. Aung T, et al. Associations of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplement Use With Cardiovascular Disease Risks: Meta-analysis of 10 Trials Involving 77 917 IndividualsJAMA Cardiol. (2018)
  20. Liao Y, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in depression: A meta-analysisTransl Psychiatry. (2019)
  21. Duffy EM, et al. The clinical effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils and/or copper in systemic lupus erythematosusJ Rheumatol. (2004)
  22. Westberg G, Tarkowski A. Effect of MaxEPA in patients with SLE. A double-blind, crossover studyScand J Rheumatol. (1990)
  23. Wright SA, et al. A randomised interventional trial of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on endothelial function and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosusAnn Rheum Dis. (2008)
  24. Walton AJ, et al. Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosusAnn Rheum Dis. (1991)
  25. Das UN. Beneficial effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus and its relationship to the cytokine networkProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (1994)
  26. Albert BB, et al. Oxidation of marine omega-3 supplements and human healthBiomed Res Int. (2013)
  27. Cholewski M, Tomczykowa M, Tomczyk M. A Comprehensive Review of Chemistry, Sources and Bioavailability of Omega-3 Fatty AcidsNutrients. (2018)
  28. Behan PO, Behan WM, Horrobin D. Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the postviral fatigue syndromeActa Neurol Scand. (1990)
  29. Collins A, et al. Essential fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndromeObstet Gynecol. (1993)
  30. Kuriki K, et al. Plasma concentrations of (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids are good biomarkers of relative dietary fatty acid intakes: a cross-sectional studyJ Nutr. (2003)
  31. Dyerberg J, Bang HO. Haemostatic function and platelet polyunsaturated fatty acids in EskimosLancet. (1979)
  32. Kaur G, et al. Docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3): a review of its biological effectsProg Lipid Res. (2011)
  33. Rawn DF, et al. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the Canadian market: polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticidesJ Food Sci. (2009)
  34. Smutna M, et al. Fish oil and cod liver as safe and healthy food supplementsNeuro Endocrinol Lett. (2009)
  35. Jordan RG. Prenatal omega-3 fatty acids: review and recommendationsJ Midwifery Womens Health. (2010)
  36. Fernandes AR, et al. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish oil dietary supplements: occurrence and human exposure in the UKFood Addit Contam. (2006)
  37. Bourdon JA, et al. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements: implications for daily intake of dioxins and PCBsFood Chem Toxicol. (2010)
  38. Jacobs MN, et al. Organochlorine residues in fish oil dietary supplements: comparison with industrial grade oilsChemosphere. (1998)
  39. Akutsu K, Tanaka Y, Hayakawa K. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in shark liver oil supplementsFood Addit Contam. (2006)
  40. Mahaffey KR. Methylmercury: a new look at the risksPublic Health Rep. (1999)
  41. Guéguen M, et al. Shellfish and residual chemical contaminants: hazards, monitoring, and health risk assessment along French coastsRev Environ Contam Toxicol. (2011)
  42. Choy CA, et al. The influence of depth on mercury levels in pelagic fishes and their preyProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2009)
  43. Maki KC, et al. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and womenNutr Res. (2009)
  44. Schuchardt JP, et al. Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations–a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oilLipids Health Dis. (2011)
  45. Dyerberg J, et al. Bioavailability of marine n-3 fatty acid formulationsProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2010)
  46. Neubronner J, et al. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in response to long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation from triacylglycerides versus ethyl estersEur J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  47. Hansen JB, et al. Comparative effects of prolonged intake of highly purified fish oils as ethyl ester or triglyceride on lipids, haemostasis and platelet function in normolipaemic menEur J Clin Nutr. (1993)
  48. Doughman SD, Krupanidhi S, Sanjeevi CB. Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHACurr Diabetes Rev. (2007)
  49. Adarme-Vega TC, et al. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid productionMicrob Cell Fact. (2012)
  50. Stamey JA, et al. Use of algae or algal oil rich in n-3 fatty acids as a feed supplement for dairy cattleJ Dairy Sci. (2012)
  51. Bernstein AM, et al. A meta-analysis shows that docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil reduces serum triglycerides and increases HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in persons without coronary heart diseaseJ Nutr. (2012)
  52. Wu WH, et al. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on blood lipids, estrogen metabolism, and in vivo oxidative stress in postmenopausal vegetarian womenEur J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  53. Hadley KB, et al. Preclinical safety evaluation in rats using a highly purified ethyl ester of algal-docosahexaenoic acidFood Chem Toxicol. (2010)
  54. Rosell MS, et al. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan menAm J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  55. Mayurasakorn K, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid: brain accretion and roles in neuroprotection after brain hypoxia and ischemiaCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2011)
  56. Igarashi M, et al. Upregulated liver conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to docosahexaenoic acid in rats on a 15 week n-3 PUFA-deficient dietJ Lipid Res. (2007)
  57. Jump DB, et al. Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcriptionJ Nutr. (2005)
  58. Nakamura MT, Nara TY. Essential fatty acid synthesis and its regulation in mammalsProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2003)
  59. Igarashi M, et al. Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation for 15 weeks upregulates elongase and desaturase expression in rat liver but not brainJ Lipid Res. (2007)
  60. Rao JS, et al. Dietary n-3 PUFA deprivation alters expression of enzymes of the arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades in rat frontal cortexMol Psychiatry. (2007)
  61. Strokin M, Sergeeva M, Reiser G. Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid release in rat brain astrocytes is mediated by two separate isoforms of phospholipase A2 and is differently regulated by cyclic AMP and Ca2+Br J Pharmacol. (2003)
  62. DeMar JC Jr, et al. Half-lives of docosahexaenoic acid in rat brain phospholipids are prolonged by 15 weeks of nutritional deprivation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsJ Neurochem. (2004)
  63. Igarashi M, et al. Low liver conversion rate of alpha-linolenic to docosahexaenoic acid in awake rats on a high-docosahexaenoate-containing dietJ Lipid Res. (2006)
  64. Kinsella JE, Broughton KS, Whelan JW. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids: interactions and possible needs in relation to eicosanoid synthesisJ Nutr Biochem. (1990)
  65. Harnack K, Andersen G, Somoza V. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acidsNutr Metab (Lond). (2009)
  66. Tvrzicka E, et al. Fatty acids as biocompounds: their role in human metabolism, health and disease–a review. Part 1: classification, dietary sources and biological functionsBiomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. (2011)
  67. Brenna JT, et al. alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humansProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2009)
  68. Yamazaki K, et al. Comparison of the conversion rates of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3(n – 3)) and stearidonic acid (18:4(n – 3)) to longer polyunsaturated fatty acids in ratsBiochim Biophys Acta. (1992)
  69. Orr SK, et al. The fat-1 mouse has brain docosahexaenoic acid levels achievable through fish oil feedingNeurochem Res. (2010)
  70. Das UN, Puskás LG. Transgenic fat-1 mouse as a model to study the pathophysiology of cardiovascular, neurological and psychiatric disordersLipids Health Dis. (2009)
  71. Smith BK, et al. A decreased n-6/n-3 ratio in the fat-1 mouse is associated with improved glucose toleranceAppl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2010)
  72. Airanthi MK, et al. Effect of brown seaweed lipids on fatty acid composition and lipid hydroperoxide levels of mouse liverJ Agric Food Chem. (2011)
  73. Tsukui T, et al. Fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol enhance the amount of docosahexaenoic acid in the liver of KKAy obese/diabetic miceJ Agric Food Chem. (2007)
  74. Anderson BM, Ma DW. Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equalLipids Health Dis. (2009)
  75. Wijendran V, Hayes KC. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular healthAnnu Rev Nutr. (2004)
  76. Weisinger HS, et al. Retinal sensitivity loss in third-generation n-3 PUFA-deficient ratsLipids. (2002)
  77. Biochemical and functional effects of prenatal and postnatal omega 3 fatty acid deficiency on retina and brain in rhesus monkeys.
  78. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and visual loss in infant rhesus monkeys.
  79. Wheeler TG, Benolken RM, Anderson RE. Visual membranes: specificity of fatty acid precursors for the electrical response to illuminationScience. (1975)
  80. Bazan NG. Synaptic lipid signaling: significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids and platelet-activating factorJ Lipid Res. (2003)
  81. Mori T, et al. Involvement of the arachidonic acid cascade in the hypersusceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure during diazepam withdrawalBiol Pharm Bull. (2012)
  82. Sun GY, et al. Phospholipase A2 in the central nervous system: implications for neurodegenerative diseasesJ Lipid Res. (2004)
  83. NMDA Receptor-Stimulated Release of Arachidonic Acid: Mechanisms for the Bazan Effect.
  84. Walev I, et al. Potassium regulates IL-1 beta processing via calcium-independent phospholipase A2J Immunol. (2000)
  85. Sun GY, Hu ZY. Stimulation of phospholipase A2 expression in rat cultured astrocytes by LPS, TNF alpha and IL-1 betaProg Brain Res. (1995)
  86. Björnsdottir H, et al. Inhibition of phospholipase A(2) abrogates intracellular processing of NADPH-oxidase derived reactive oxygen species in human neutrophilsExp Cell Res. (2013)
  87. Rosenson RS, Stafforini DM. Modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerosis by lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2J Lipid Res. (2012)
  88. imopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseasesExp Biol Med (Maywood). (2008)
  89. Simopoulos AP. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supplyLipids. (1999)
  90. Simopoulos AP. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and developmentAm J Clin Nutr. (1991)
  91. Sanders TA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in EuropeAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  92. Sugano M, Hirahara F. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in JapanAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  93. Pella D, et al. Effects of an Indo-Mediterranean diet on the omega-6/omega-3 ratio in patients at high risk of coronary artery disease: the Indian paradoxWorld Rev Nutr Diet. (2003)
  94. Eaton SB, et al. Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the paleolithicWorld Rev Nutr Diet. (1998)
  95. Simopoulos AP. Overview of evolutionary aspects of omega 3 fatty acids in the dietWorld Rev Nutr Diet. (1998)
  96. FATTY-ACID RATIOS IN FREE-LIVING AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS: Possible Implications for Atheroma.
  97. Crawford MA, Gale MM, Woodford MH. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid elongation products in muscle tissue of Sncerus caffer and other ruminant speciesBiochem J. (1969)
  99. Xu ZZ, et al. Resolvins RvE1 and RvD1 attenuate inflammatory pain via central and peripheral actionsNat Med. (2010)
  100. Serhan CN, et al. Resolvins, docosatrienes, and neuroprotectins, novel omega-3-derived mediators, and their aspirin-triggered endogenous epimers: an overview of their protective roles in catabasisProstaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. (2004)
  101. Mas E, et al. Resolvins D1, D2, and other mediators of self-limited resolution of inflammation in human blood following n-3 fatty acid supplementationClin Chem. (2012)
  102. Bannenberg GL. Resolvins: Current understanding and future potential in the control of inflammationCurr Opin Drug Discov Devel. (2009)
  103. Recchiuti A. Resolvin D1 and its GPCRs in resolution circuits of inflammationProstaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. (2013)
  104. Xu MX, et al. Resolvin d1, an endogenous lipid mediator for inactivation of inflammation-related signaling pathways in microglial cells, prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responsesCNS Neurosci Ther. (2013)
  105. Serhan CN, et al. Resolvins: a family of bioactive products of omega-3 fatty acid transformation circuits initiated by aspirin treatment that counter proinflammation signalsJ Exp Med. (2002)
  106. Sharma NP, et al. Asymmetric acetylation of the cyclooxygenase-2 homodimer by aspirin and its effects on the oxygenation of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acidsMol Pharmacol. (2010)
  107. Rowlinson SW, et al. Spatial requirements for 15-(R)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,11Z, 13E-eicosatetraenoic acid synthesis within the cyclooxygenase active site of murine COX-2. Why acetylated COX-1 does not synthesize 15-(R)-heteJ Biol Chem. (2000)
  108. Serhan CN, et al. Novel functional sets of lipid-derived mediators with antiinflammatory actions generated from omega-3 fatty acids via cyclooxygenase 2-nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and transcellular processingJ Exp Med. (2000)
  109. Corey EJ, Shih C, Cashman JR. Docosahexaenoic acid is a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin but not leukotriene biosynthesisProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1983)
  110. Arita M, et al. Stereochemical assignment, antiinflammatory properties, and receptor for the omega-3 lipid mediator resolvin E1J Exp Med. (2005)
  111. Meder W, et al. Characterization of human circulating TIG2 as a ligand for the orphan receptor ChemR23FEBS Lett. (2003)
  112. Cash JL, et al. Synthetic chemerin-derived peptides suppress inflammation through ChemR23J Exp Med. (2008)
  113. Bazan NG. Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1): a DHA-derived mediator that protects brain and retina against cell injury-induced oxidative stressBrain Pathol. (2005)
  114. Bazan NG, Birkle DL, Reddy TS. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, n-3) is metabolized to lipoxygenase reaction products in the retinaBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (1984)
  115. Mukherjee PK, et al. Neuroprotectin D1: a docosahexaenoic acid-derived docosatriene protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stressProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2004)
  116. Marcheselli VL, et al. Novel docosanoids inhibit brain ischemia-reperfusion-mediated leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expressionJ Biol Chem. (2003)
  117. Zhao Y, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 induces neuronal survival via secretase- and PPARγ-mediated mechanisms in Alzheimer’s disease modelsPLoS One. (2011)
  118. Lukiw WJ, et al. A role for docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 in neural cell survival and Alzheimer diseaseJ Clin Invest. (2005)
  119. Sahlin C, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid stimulates non-amyloidogenic APP processing resulting in reduced Abeta levels in cellular models of Alzheimer’s diseaseEur J Neurosci. (2007)
  120. Oksman M, et al. Impact of different saturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and cholesterol containing diets on beta-amyloid accumulation in APP/PS1 transgenic miceNeurobiol Dis. (2006)
  121. Lim GP, et al. A diet enriched with the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid reduces amyloid burden in an aged Alzheimer mouse modelJ Neurosci. (2005)
  122. Kliewer SA, et al. A prostaglandin J2 metabolite binds peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and promotes adipocyte differentiationCell. (1995)
  123. Forman BM, et al. 15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPAR gammaCell. (1995)
  124. Krey G, et al. Fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic agents identified as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assayMol Endocrinol. (1997)
  125. Bundy GL, et al. Synthesis and platelet aggregation inhibiting activity of prostaglandin D analoguesJ Med Chem. (1983)
  126. Mahmud I, et al. On the identification and biological properties of prostaglandin J2Prostaglandins Leukot Med. (1984)
  127. Zulyniak MA, et al. Fish oil supplementation alters circulating eicosanoid concentrations in young healthy menMetabolism. (2013)
  128. Vu-Dac N, et al. Fibrates increase human apolipoprotein A-II expression through activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorJ Clin Invest. (1995)
  129. Rosen ED, et al. Transcriptional regulation of adipogenesisGenes Dev. (2000)
  130. Wang YX, et al. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta activates fat metabolism to prevent obesityCell. (2003)
  131. Gani OA. Are fish oil omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonistsCardiovasc Diabetol. (2008)
  132. Hasegawa H, et al. A novel natural compound, a cycloanthranilylproline derivative (Fuligocandin B), sensitizes leukemia cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) through 15-deoxy-Delta 12, 14 prostaglandin J2 productionBlood. (2007)
  133. Yu K, et al. Differential activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by eicosanoidsJ Biol Chem. (1995)
  134. Xu HE, et al. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorsMol Cell. (1999)
  135. Hertz R, et al. Activation of gene transcription by prostacyclin analogues is mediated by the peroxisome-proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR)Eur J Biochem. (1996)
  136. Devchand PR, et al. The PPARalpha-leukotriene B4 pathway to inflammation controlNature. (1996)
  137. Lorente-Cebrián S, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase and increases visfatin secretion in cultured murine adipocytesClin Sci (Lond). (2009)
  138. Xue B, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids antagonize macrophage inflammation via activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathwayPLoS One. (2012)
  139. Saha AK, et al. Pioglitazone treatment activates AMP-activated protein kinase in rat liver and adipose tissue in vivoBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2004)
  140. Wu Y, et al. Activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) improves endothelial function in vivoPLoS One. (2012)
  141. Yan XP, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on rat livers after partial hepatectomy via LKB1-AMPK signaling pathwayTransplant Proc. (2011)
  142. Jing K, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid induces autophagy through p53/AMPK/mTOR signaling and promotes apoptosis in human cancer cells harboring wild-type p53Autophagy. (2011)
  143. Gabler NK, et al. Feeding long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during gestation increases intestinal glucose absorption potentially via the acute activation of AMPKJ Nutr Biochem. (2009)
  144. Yeung F, et al. Modulation of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription and cell survival by the SIRT1 deacetylaseEMBO J. (2004)
  145. Yang Z, et al. Macrophage alpha1 AMP-activated protein kinase (alpha1AMPK) antagonizes fatty acid-induced inflammation through SIRT1J Biol Chem. (2010)
  146. Lorente-Cebrián S, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α-induced lipolysis in murine cultured adipocytesJ Nutr Biochem. (2012)
  147. Figueras M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment on insulin sensitivity in an animal model of diabetes: improvement of the inflammatory statusObesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  148. González-Périz A, et al. Obesity-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis are alleviated by omega-3 fatty acids: a role for resolvins and protectinsFASEB J. (2009)
  149. Jelenik T, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase α2 subunit is required for the preservation of hepatic insulin sensitivity by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsDiabetes. (2010)
  150. Maiuri MC, et al. Control of autophagy by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genesCell Death Differ. (2009)
  151. Tasdemir E, et al. Regulation of autophagy by cytoplasmic p53Nat Cell Biol. (2008)
  152. Fredriksson R, et al. Seven evolutionarily conserved human rhodopsin G protein-coupled receptors lacking close relativesFEBS Lett. (2003)
  153. Moore K, et al. Cloning, expression, and pharmacological characterization of the GPR120 free fatty acid receptor from cynomolgus monkey: comparison with human GPR120 splice variantsComp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. (2009)
  154. Oh DY, et al. GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effectsCell. (2010)
  155. Lin DC, et al. Identification and pharmacological characterization of multiple allosteric binding sites on the free fatty acid 1 receptorMol Pharmacol. (2012)
  156. Burns RN, Moniri NH. Agonism with the omega-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid mediates phosphorylation of both the short and long isoforms of the human GPR120 receptorBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2010)
  157. Morishita M, et al. Usefulness of colon targeted DHA and EPA as novel diabetes medications that promote intrinsic GLP-1 secretionJ Control Release. (2008)
  158. Hirasawa A, et al. Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120Nat Med. (2005)
  159. Tanaka T, et al. Free fatty acids induce cholecystokinin secretion through GPR120Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. (2008)
  160. Oh DY, Olefsky JM. Omega 3 fatty acids and GPR120Cell Metab. (2012)
  161. Im DS. Omega-3 fatty acids in anti-inflammation (pro-resolution) and GPCRsProg Lipid Res. (2012)
  162. Itoh Y, et al. Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through GPR40Nature. (2003)
  163. The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR40 Is Activated by Medium and Long Chain Fatty Acids.
  164. Brown AJ, et al. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acidsJ Biol Chem. (2003)
  165. Wang J, et al. Medium-chain fatty acids as ligands for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR84J Biol Chem. (2006)
  166. Augustin MA, et al. Intestinal passage of microencapsulated fish oil in rats following oral administrationFood Funct. (2011)
  167. Patten GS, et al. Site specific delivery of microencapsulated fish oil to the gastrointestinal tract of the ratDig Dis Sci. (2009)
  168. Marsen TA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of omega-3-fatty acids during ingestion of fish oil preparationsProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (1992)
  170. Bourre JM, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency in adult rats for 7 months does not alter brain docosahexaenoic acid content, in contrast to liver, heart and testesBiochim Biophys Acta. (1992)
  171. Moriguchi T, Harauma A, Salem N Jr. Plasticity of mouse brain docosahexaenoic Acid: modulation by diet and ageLipids. (2013)
  172. Pawlosky RJ, Salem N Jr. Alcohol consumption in rhesus monkeys depletes tissues of polyunsaturated fatty acids and alters essential fatty acid metabolismAlcohol Clin Exp Res. (1999)
  173. Pawlosky RJ, Bacher J, Salem N Jr. Ethanol consumption alters electroretinograms and depletes neural tissues of docosahexaenoic acid in rhesus monkeys: nutritional consequences of a low n-3 fatty acid dietAlcohol Clin Exp Res. (2001)
  174. Hamazaki T, et al. Anti-stress effects of DHABiofactors. (2000)
  175. Hamazaki T, et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A placebo-controlled double-blind studyJ Clin Invest. (1996)
  176. Hamazaki T, et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in elderly Thai subjects–a placebo-controlled double-blind studyNutr Neurosci. (2002)
  177. Hamazaki T, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid does not affect aggression of normal volunteers under nonstressful conditions. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyLipids. (1998)
  178. Hibbeln JR, Salem N Jr. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfyAm J Clin Nutr. (1995)
  179. Long SJ1, Benton D. A double-blind trial of the effect of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin and mineral supplementation on aggression, impulsivity, and stressHum Psychopharmacol. (2013)
  180. Itomura M, et al. The effect of fish oil on physical aggression in schoolchildren–a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Nutr Biochem. (2005)
  181. Raine A1, et al. Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trialJ Child Psychol Psychiatry. (2014)
  182. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenonic Acid Is Associated with Cognitive Functioning during Middle Adulthood.
  183. Gamoh S, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young ratsNeuroscience. (1999)
  184. Improved Working Memory but No Effect on Striatal Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Type 2 after Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation.
  185. Stonehouse W, et al. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  186. Fontani G, et al. Cognitive and physiological effects of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Invest. (2005)
  187. Chiu CC, et al. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids monotherapy in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled studyProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2008)
  188. Stough C, et al. The effects of 90-day supplementation with the omega-3 essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cognitive function and visual acuity in a healthy aging populationNeurobiol Aging. (2012)
  189. van de Rest O, et al. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trialNeurology. (2008)
  190. Antypa N, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids (fish-oil) and depression-related cognition in healthy volunteersJ Psychopharmacol. (2009)
  191. Jackson PA, et al. No effect of 12 weeks‘ supplementation with 1 g DHA-rich or EPA-rich fish oil on cognitive function or mood in healthy young adults aged 18-35 yearsBr J Nutr. (2012)
  192. Martins JG. EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJ Am Coll Nutr. (2009)
  193. Rees AM, Austin MP, Parker GB. Omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for perinatal depression: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trialAust N Z J Psychiatry. (2008)
  194. Freeman MP, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and supportive psychotherapy for perinatal depression: a randomized placebo-controlled studyJ Affect Disord. (2008)
  195. Doornbos B, et al. Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sampleProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2009)
  196. Llorente AM, et al. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processingAm J Obstet Gynecol. (2003)
  197. Su KP, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Clin Psychiatry. (2008)
  198. Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorderAm J Psychiatry. (2002)
  199. Marangell LB, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depressionAm J Psychiatry. (2003)
  200. Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugsArch Gen Psychiatry. (2002)
  201. Lucas M, et al. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  202. Grenyer BF, et al. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trialProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2007)
  203. Su KP, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trialEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2003)
  204. Warren G, McKendrick M, Peet M. The role of essential fatty acids in chronic fatigue syndrome. A case-controlled study of red-cell membrane essential fatty acids (EFA) and a placebo-controlled treatment study with high dose of EFAActa Neurol Scand. (1999)
  205. Keck PE Jr, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of ethyl-eicosapentanoate in the treatment of bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorderBiol Psychiatry. (2006)
  206. Hirashima F, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment and T(2) whole brain relaxation times in bipolar disorderAm J Psychiatry. (2004)
  207. Frangou S, Lewis M, McCrone P. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled studyBr J Psychiatry. (2006)
  208. Stoll AL, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trialArch Gen Psychiatry. (1999)
  209. Fenton WS, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophreniaAm J Psychiatry. (2001)
  210. da Silva TM, et al. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty-acid supplementationJ Affect Disord. (2008)
  211. Hallahan B, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. Single-centre double-blind randomised controlled trialBr J Psychiatry. (2007)
  212. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot studyAm J Psychiatry. (2003)
  213. van de Rest O, et al. Effect of fish-oil supplementation on mental well-being in older subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  214. Rogers PJ, et al. No effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA and DHA) supplementation on depressed mood and cognitive function: a randomised controlled trialBr J Nutr. (2008)
  215. Silvers KM, et al. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depressionProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2005)
  216. Fontani G, et al. Blood profiles, body fat and mood state in healthy subjects on different diets supplemented with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsEur J Clin Invest. (2005)
  217. Jazayeri S, et al. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorderAust N Z J Psychiatry. (2008)
  218. Laino CH, et al. Potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant-like effects with low non-antidepressant doses of fluoxetine and mirtazapineEur J Pharmacol. (2010)
  219. Carlezon WA Jr, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of uridine and omega-3 fatty acids are potentiated by combined treatment in ratsBiol Psychiatry. (2005)
  220. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, et al. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation in healthy middle-aged and older adults: a randomized controlled trialBrain Behav Immun. (2012)
  221. van de Rest O, et al. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialJ Am Geriatr Soc. (2009)
  222. Chronic Sodium Valproate Selectively Decreases Protein Kinase C α and ε In Vitro.
  223. Berridge MJ, Downes CP, Hanley MR. Lithium amplifies agonist-dependent phosphatidylinositol responses in brain and salivary glandsBiochem J. (1982)
  224. Evans SJ, et al. Association of plasma ω-3 and ω-6 lipids with burden of disease measures in bipolar subjectsJ Psychiatr Res. (2012)
  225. Montgomery P, Richardson AJ. Omega-3 fatty acids for bipolar disorderCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2008)
  226. Wurtman RJ, et al. Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humansBiochem Pharmacol. (2000)
  227. Murphy BL, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment, with or without cytidine, fails to show therapeutic properties in bipolar disorder: a double-blind, randomized add-on clinical trialJ Clin Psychopharmacol. (2012)
  228. Appleton KM, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for depression in adultsCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2015)
  229. Eguchi R, et al. Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed ratsLipids Health Dis. (2011)
  230. Hamazaki T, et al. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid influences behavior and plasma catecholamine levels at times of psychological stressLipids. (1999)
  231. Sawazaki S, et al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on plasma catecholamine concentrations and glucose tolerance during long-lasting psychological stress: a double-blind placebo-controlled studyJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (1999)
  232. Song C, et al. Effects of dietary n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on interleukin-1beta-induced anxiety, stress, and inflammatory responses in ratsJ Lipid Res. (2003)
  233. Takeuchi T, Iwanaga M, Harada E. Possible regulatory mechanism of DHA-induced anti-stress reaction in ratsBrain Res. (2003)
  234. Hamazaki K, et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acid-containing phospholipids on blood catecholamine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trialNutrition. (2005)
  235. Ximenes da Silva A, et al. Glucose transport and utilization are altered in the brain of rats deficient in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsJ Neurochem. (2002)
  236. Pifferi F, et al. (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency reduces the expression of both isoforms of the brain glucose transporter GLUT1 in ratsJ Nutr. (2005)
  237. Pifferi F, et al. n-3 Fatty acids modulate brain glucose transport in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrierProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2007)
  238. Pifferi F, et al. n-3 long-chain fatty acids and regulation of glucose transport in two models of rat brain endothelial cellsNeurochem Int. (2010)
  239. Tsukada H, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves the age-related impairment of the coupling mechanism between neuronal activation and functional cerebral blood flow response: a PET study in conscious monkeysBrain Res. (2000)
  240. Nugent S, et al. Brain and systemic glucose metabolism in the healthy elderly following fish oil supplementationProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2011)
  241. Katayama Y, et al. Effect of long-term administration of ethyl eicosapentate (EPA-E) on local cerebral blood flow and glucose utilization in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP)Brain Res. (1997)
  242. Steinbrink J, et al. Illuminating the BOLD signal: combined fMRI-fNIRS studiesMagn Reson Imaging. (2006)
  243. Jackson PA, et al. DHA-rich oil modulates the cerebral haemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adults: a near IR spectroscopy pilot studyBr J Nutr. (2012)
  244. Jackson PA, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil modulates the cerebral hemodynamic response to cognitive tasks in healthy young adultsBiol Psychol. (2012)
  245. Bouzan C, et al. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and stroke riskAm J Prev Med. (2005)
  246. He K, et al. Fish consumption and incidence of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studiesStroke. (2004)
  247. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefitsJAMA. (2006)
  248. Mozaffarian D, et al. Fish consumption and stroke risk in elderly individuals: the cardiovascular health studyArch Intern Med. (2005)
  249. Yamagishi K, et al. Fish, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in a nationwide community-based cohort of Japanese men and women the JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) StudyJ Am Coll Cardiol. (2008)
  250. Youdim KA, Martin A, Joseph JA. Essential fatty acids and the brain: possible health implicationsInt J Dev Neurosci. (2000)
  251. Salem N Jr, et al. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous systemLipids. (2001)
  252. N-3 Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Are Neuroprotective after Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice.
  253. Schaefer EJ, et al. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart StudyArch Neurol. (2006)
  254. Huang TL, et al. Benefits of fatty fish on dementia risk are stronger for those without APOE epsilon4Neurology. (2005)
  255. Kalmijn S, et al. Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle ageNeurology. (2004)
  256. Morris MC, et al. Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community studyArch Neurol. (2005)
  257. Samieri C, et al. Plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and atrophy of the medial temporal lobeNeurology. (2012)
  258. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging.
  259. Quinn JF, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized trialJAMA. (2010)
  260. James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator productionAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  261. Xiang Z, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 promotes amyloid plaque deposition in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathologyGene Expr. (2002)
  262. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and COX-1 potentiate beta-amyloid peptide generation through mechanisms that involve gamma-secretase activity.
  263. Strokin M, Sergeeva M, Reiser G. Prostaglandin synthesis in rat brain astrocytes is under the control of the n-3 docosahexaenoic acid, released by group VIB calcium-independent phospholipase A2J Neurochem. (2007)
  264. de Wilde MC, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces amyloid-β(1-42) secretion in human AβPP-transfected CHO-cells by mechanisms other than inflammation related to PGE₂J Alzheimers Dis. (2010)
  265. Hashimoto M, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates the impairment of spatial cognition learning ability in amyloid beta-infused ratsJ Nutr. (2005)
  266. Hashimoto M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid provides protection from impairment of learning ability in Alzheimer’s disease model ratsJ Neurochem. (2002)
  267. Hashimoto M, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid-induced protective effect against impaired learning in amyloid beta-infused rats is associated with increased synaptosomal membrane fluidityClin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. (2006)
  268. Shim KS, Lubec G. Drebrin, a dendritic spine protein, is manifold decreased in brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and Down syndromeNeurosci Lett. (2002)
  269. Selkoe DJ. Alzheimer’s disease is a synaptic failureScience. (2002)
  270. Calon F, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse modelNeuron. (2004)
  271. Wurtman RJ. Synapse formation and cognitive brain development: effect of docosahexaenoic acid and other dietary constituentsMetabolism. (2008)
  272. Sakamoto T, Cansev M, Wurtman RJ. Oral supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid and uridine-5′-monophosphate increases dendritic spine density in adult gerbil hippocampusBrain Res. (2007)
  273. Freund-Levi Y, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trialArch Neurol. (2006)
  274. Freund-Levi Y, et al. Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptomsInt J Geriatr Psychiatry. (2008)
  275. Yurko-Mauro K, et al. Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive declineAlzheimers Dement. (2010)
  276. Dangour AD, et al. Effect of 2-y n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive function in older people: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  277. Chew EY, et al. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Lutein/Zeaxanthin, or Other Nutrient Supplementation on Cognitive Function: The AREDS2 Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA. (2015)
  278. Rozzini L, et al. Cognitive dysfunction and age-related macular degenerationAm J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. (2014)
  279. Arita M, et al. Metabolic inactivation of resolvin E1 and stabilization of its anti-inflammatory actionsJ Biol Chem. (2006)
  280. Wittamer V, et al. Specific recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by chemerin, a novel processed ligand from human inflammatory fluidsJ Exp Med. (2003)
  281. Zhuang ZY, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activates ERK in primary sensory neurons and mediates inflammatory heat hyperalgesia through TRPV1 sensitizationJ Neurosci. (2004)
  282. Goldberg RJ, Katz J. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint painPain. (2007)
  283. de Grooth GJ, et al. A review of CETP and its relation to atherosclerosisJ Lipid Res. (2004)
  284. Quinet E, et al. Plasma lipid transfer protein as a determinant of the atherogenicity of monkey plasma lipoproteinsJ Clin Invest. (1991)
  285. Föger B, et al. Relationship of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein to HDL cholesterol. Studies in normotriglyceridemia and moderate hypertriglyceridemiaArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (1996)
  286. Fusegawa Y, et al. Influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the relationship between CETP activity and plasma lipoproteins in monkeysJ Lipid Res. (2001)
  287. Sparks DL, et al. Relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer activity and high density lipoprotein composition in hyperlipidemic patientsAtherosclerosis. (1989)
  288. de Grooth GJ, et al. The relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels and risk factor profile in patients with familial hypercholesterolemiaAtherosclerosis. (2004)
  289. Kastelein J. What future for combination therapiesInt J Clin Pract Suppl. (2003)
  290. Barter PJ. Hugh sinclair lecture: the regulation and remodelling of HDL by plasma factorsAtheroscler Suppl. (2002)
  291. Goh YK, et al. Effect of omega 3 fatty acid on plasma lipids, cholesterol and lipoprotein fatty acid content in NIDDM patientsDiabetologia. (1997)
  292. de Silva PP, Davis PJ, Cheema SK. Hyperlipidaemic effect of fish oil in Bio F1B hamstersBr J Nutr. (2004)
  293. Ishida T, et al. Distinct regulation of plasma LDL cholesterol by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in high fat diet-fed hamsters: Participation of cholesterol ester transfer protein and LDL receptorProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2013)
  294. Eslick GD, et al. Benefits of fish oil supplementation in hyperlipidemia: a systematic review and meta-analysisInt J Cardiol. (2009)
  295. Stradling C, et al. The effects of dietary intervention on HIV dyslipidaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysisPLoS One. (2012)
  296. Pei J, et al. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in patients with chronic renal failure–a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJ Ren Nutr. (2012)
  297. Hartweg J, et al. Potential impact of omega-3 treatment on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetesCurr Opin Lipidol. (2009)
  298. Harris WS. n-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studiesAm J Clin Nutr. (1997)
  299. Theobald HE, et al. LDL cholesterol-raising effect of low-dose docosahexaenoic acid in middle-aged men and womenAm J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  300. Stark KD, Holub BJ. Differential eicosapentaenoic acid elevations and altered cardiovascular disease risk factor responses after supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapyAm J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  301. Kelley DS, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic menAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  302. Maki KC, et al. Lipid responses to a dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplement in men and women with below average levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterolJ Am Coll Nutr. (2005)
  303. Geppert J, et al. Microalgal docosahexaenoic acid decreases plasma triacylglycerol in normolipidaemic vegetarians: a randomised trialBr J Nutr. (2006)
  304. Conquer JA, Holub BJ. Supplementation with an algae source of docosahexaenoic acid increases (n-3) fatty acid status and alters selected risk factors for heart disease in vegetarian subjectsJ Nutr. (1996)
  305. Agren JJ, et al. Fish diet, fish oil and docosahexaenoic acid rich oil lower fasting and postprandial plasma lipid levelsEur J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  306. Mori TA, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic menAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  307. Ando M, Sanaka T, Nihei H. Eicosapentanoic acid reduces plasma levels of remnant lipoproteins and prevents in vivo peroxidation of LDL in dialysis patientsJ Am Soc Nephrol. (1999)
  308. Satoh N, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic acid reduces small dense LDL, remnant lipoprotein particles, and C-reactive protein in metabolic syndromeDiabetes Care. (2007)
  309. Kurabayashi T, Okada M, Tanaka K. Eicosapentaenoic acid effect on hyperlipidemia in menopausal Japanese women. The Niigata Epadel Study GroupObstet Gynecol. (2000)
  310. Park Y, Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearanceJ Lipid Res. (2003)
  311. Grimsgaard S, et al. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acidsAm J Clin Nutr. (1997)
  312. Nestel P, et al. The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic arterial compliance in humansAm J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  313. Woodman RJ, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertensionAm J Clin Nutr. (2002)
  314. Mori TA, Woodman RJ. The independent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiovascular risk factors in humansCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2006)
  315. Hanwell HE, et al. Acute fish oil and soy isoflavone supplementation increase postprandial serum (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and isoflavones but do not affect triacylglycerols or biomarkers of oxidative stress in overweight and obese hypertriglyceridemic menJ Nutr. (2009)
  316. Schirmer SH, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial triglycerides and monocyte activationAtherosclerosis. (2012)
  317. Egert S, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA have differential effects on LDL fatty acid composition but similar effects on serum lipid profiles in normolipidemic humansJ Nutr. (2009)
  318. Nestel PJ. Fish oil attenuates the cholesterol induced rise in lipoprotein cholesterolAm J Clin Nutr. (1986)
  319. Illingworth DR, Harris WS, Connor WE. Inhibition of low density lipoprotein synthesis by dietary omega-3 fatty acids in humansArteriosclerosis. (1984)
  320. de Lorgeril M, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart diseaseLancet. (1994)
  321. Impact of n-3 fatty acids on endothelial function: results from human interventions studies.
  322. Montori VM, et al. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic reviewDiabetes Care. (2000)
  323. Friedberg CE, et al. Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes. A meta-analysisDiabetes Care. (1998)
  324. MacLean CH, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on lipids and glycemic control in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and on inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, renal disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and osteoporosisEvid Rep Technol Assess (Summ). (2004)
  325. Hartweg J, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitusCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2008)
  326. Maki KC, et al. Effects of adding prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters to simvastatin (20 mg/day) on lipids and lipoprotein particles in men and women with mixed dyslipidemiaAm J Cardiol. (2008)
  327. Luo J, et al. Moderate intake of n-3 fatty acids for 2 months has no detrimental effect on glucose metabolism and could ameliorate the lipid profile in type 2 diabetic men. Results of a controlled studyDiabetes Care. (1998)
  328. Schectman G, Kaul S, Kissebah AH. Effect of fish oil concentrate on lipoprotein composition in NIDDMDiabetes. (1988)
  329. Giacco R, et al. Fish oil, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in healthy people: is there any effect of fish oil supplementation in relation to the type of background diet and habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acidsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2007)
  330. Egert S, et al. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on parameters of glucose metabolism in healthy volunteersAnn Nutr Metab. (2008)
  331.  Bortolotti M, Tappy L, Schneiter P. Fish oil supplementation does not alter energy efficiency in healthy malesClin Nutr. (2007)
  332. Tsitouras PD, et al. High omega-3 fat intake improves insulin sensitivity and reduces CRP and IL6, but does not affect other endocrine axes in healthy older adultsHorm Metab Res. (2008)
  333. Fedor D, Kelley DS. Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2009)
  334. Ramel A, et al. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adultsDiabetologia. (2008)
  335. Rivellese AA, et al. Long-term effects of fish oil on insulin resistance and plasma lipoproteins in NIDDM patients with hypertriglyceridemiaDiabetes Care. (1996)
  336. Browning LM, et al. The impact of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on inflammation, insulin sensitivity and CVD risk in a group of overweight women with an inflammatory phenotypeDiabetes Obes Metab. (2007)
  337. Treatment for 2 mo with n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study.
  338. Hendrich S. (n-3) Fatty Acids: Clinical Trials in People with Type 2 DiabetesAdv Nutr. (2010)
  339. Haugaard SB, et al. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivityClin Endocrinol {Oxf}. (2006)
  340. Faeh D, et al. Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy menDiabetes. (2005)
  341. Dekker MJ, et al. Fructose: a highly lipogenic nutrient implicated in insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and the metabolic syndromeAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  342. Hirabara SM, Curi R, Maechler P. Saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle cellsJ Cell Physiol. (2010)
  343. Sawada K, et al. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cellsLipids Health Dis. (2012)
  344. Huang T, et al. Plasma phospholipids n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is associated with metabolic syndromeMol Nutr Food Res. (2010)
  345. Lauretani F, et al. Omega-3 and renal function in older adultsCurr Pharm Des. (2009)
  346. Huang T, et al. Increased plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes in ChinaMol Nutr Food Res. (2010)
  347. Flachs P, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce beta-oxidation in white fatDiabetologia. (2005)
  348. Kelly DP, Scarpulla RC. Transcriptional regulatory circuits controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and functionGenes Dev. (2004)
  349. Rufer AC, Thoma R, Hennig M. Structural insight into function and regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferaseCell Mol Life Sci. (2009)
  350. Nakatani T, et al. Mechanism for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator-induced up-regulation of UCP2 mRNA in rodent hepatocytesJ Biol Chem. (2002)
  351. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, et al. Up-regulation of liver uncoupling protein-2 mRNA by either fish oil feeding or fibrate administration in miceBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (1999)
  352. Kunesová M, et al. The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese womenPhysiol Res. (2006)
  353. Couet C, et al. Effect of dietary fish oil on body fat mass and basal fat oxidation in healthy adultsInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1997)
  354. Kabir M, et al. Treatment for 2 mo with n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled studyAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  355. Neschen S, et al. Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in miceDiabetes. (2006)
  356. Shirai N, Suzuki H. Effects of simultaneous intakes of fish oil and green tea extracts on plasma, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin and on liver lipid concentrations in mice fed low- and high-fat dietsAnn Nutr Metab. (2008)
  357. Gammelmark A, et al. Low-dose fish oil supplementation increases serum adiponectin without affecting inflammatory markers in overweight subjectsNutr Res. (2012)
  358. Flachs P, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin induce adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat dietDiabetologia. (2006)
  359. Tishinsky JM, Ma DW, Robinson LE. Eicosapentaenoic acid and rosiglitazone increase adiponectin in an additive and PPARγ-dependent manner in human adipocytesObesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  360. Rossi AS, et al. Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant ratsAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2005)
  361. Todoric J, et al. Adipose tissue inflammation induced by high-fat diet in obese diabetic mice is prevented by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsDiabetologia. (2006)
  362. Ma T, et al. Sucrose counteracts the anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue and increases obesity development in micePLoS One. (2011)
  363. Baillie RA, et al. Coordinate induction of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and UCP-3 by dietary fish oil: a mechanism for decreased body fat depositionProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (1999)
  364. Belzung F, Raclot T, Groscolas R. Fish oil n-3 fatty acids selectively limit the hypertrophy of abdominal fat depots in growing rats fed high-fat dietsAm J Physiol. (1993)
  365. Hainault I, et al. Fish oil in a high lard diet prevents obesity, hyperlipemia, and adipocyte insulin resistance in ratsAnn N Y Acad Sci. (1993)
  366. Parrish CC, Pathy DA, Angel A. Dietary fish oils limit adipose tissue hypertrophy in ratsMetabolism. (1990)
  367. Pérez-Matute P, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid actions on adiposity and insulin resistance in control and high-fat-fed rats: role of apoptosis, adiponectin and tumour necrosis factor-alphaBr J Nutr. (2007)
  368. Ruzickova J, et al. Omega-3 PUFA of marine origin limit diet-induced obesity in mice by reducing cellularity of adipose tissueLipids. (2004)
  369. Huang XF, et al. Role of fat amount and type in ameliorating diet-induced obesity: insights at the level of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus leptin receptor, neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA expressionDiabetes Obes Metab. (2004)
  370. Buckley JD, Howe PR. Anti-obesity effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsObes Rev. (2009)
  371. Lorente-Cebrián S, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on adiponectin gene expression and secretion in primary cultured rat adipocytesJ Physiol Biochem. (2006)
  372. Dietary Fatty Acids Influence the Activity and Metabolic Control of Mitochondrial Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase I in Rat Heart and Skeletal Muscle.
  373. Mascaró C, et al. Control of human muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorJ Biol Chem. (1998)
  374. Fish consumption and risk of stroke in man.
  375. Iso H, et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in womenJAMA. (2001)
  376. Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  377. Warner JG Jr, et al. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic personsMed Sci Sports Exerc. (1989)
  378. Smith GI, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and womenClin Sci (Lond). (2011)
  379. Smith GI, et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: a randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  380. An WS, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the remnant kidneyAm J Physiol Renal Physiol. (2009)
  381. Chen J, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis through activation of cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling in cardiac fibroblastsCirculation. (2011)
  382. McGlory C, et al. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding-induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young menPhysiol Rep. (2016)
  383. Yamazaki RK, et al. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese ratsLipids Health Dis. (2011)
  384. Lam YY, et al. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and pathways regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle cells: the effects of subcutaneous and visceral fat, and long-chain saturated, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acidsBiochim Biophys Acta. (2011)
  385. Delarue J, et al. Interaction of fish oil and a glucocorticoid on metabolic responses to an oral glucose load in healthy human subjectsBr J Nutr. (2006)
  386. Cha SH, et al. Chronic docosahexaenoic acid intake enhances expression of the gene for uncoupling protein 3 and affects pleiotropic mRNA levels in skeletal muscle of aged C57BL/6NJcl miceJ Nutr. (2001)
  387. Perez R, Cañón J, Dunner S. Genes associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscleJ Appl Genet. (2010)
  388. Hessvik NP, et al. Metabolic switching of human myotubes is improved by n-3 fatty acidsJ Lipid Res. (2010)
  389. You JS, et al. Dietary fish oil alleviates soleus atrophy during immobilization in association with Akt signaling to p70s6k and E3 ubiquitin ligases in ratsAppl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2010)
  390. You JS, Park MN, Lee YS. Dietary fish oil inhibits the early stage of recovery of atrophied soleus muscle in rats via Akt-p70s6k signaling and PGF2αJ Nutr Biochem. (2010)
  391. Ryan AM, et al. Enteral nutrition enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) preserves lean body mass following esophageal cancer surgery: results of a double-blinded randomized controlled trialAnn Surg. (2009)
  392. Read JA, et al. Nutrition intervention using an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-containing supplement in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Effects on nutritional and inflammatory status: a phase II trialSupport Care Cancer. (2007)
  393. Fearon KC, et al. Effect of a protein and energy dense N-3 fatty acid enriched oral supplement on loss of weight and lean tissue in cancer cachexia: a randomised double blind trialGut. (2003)
  394. Tishinsky JM, et al. Fish oil prevents high saturated fat diet-induced impairments in adiponectin and insulin response in rodent soleus muscleAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2011)
  395. Guebre-Egziabher F, et al. Nutritional intervention to reduce the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio increases adiponectin concentration and fatty acid oxidation in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  396. Aas V, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) increases fatty acid and glucose uptake in cultured human skeletal muscle cellsJ Lipid Res. (2006)
  397. Abbott SK, Else PL, Hulbert AJ. Membrane fatty acid composition of rat skeletal muscle is most responsive to the balance of dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFABr J Nutr. (2010)
  398. Haugaard SB, et al. Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary interventionLipids Health Dis. (2009)
  399. Jolly CA, et al. Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress murine lymphoproliferation, interleukin-2 secretion, and the formation of diacylglycerol and ceramideJ Nutr. (1997)
  400. Alnajjar A, et al. Effect of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lymphocyte proliferation, interleukin production and phospholipid fatty acids composition in type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects in Jordan peopleProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2006)
  401. Endres S, et al. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids suppresses interleukin-2 production and mononuclear cell proliferationJ Leukoc Biol. (1993)
  402. Smith KA. The interleukin 2 receptorAdv Immunol. (1988)
  403. Nedwin GE, et al. Effect of interleukin 2, interferon-gamma, and mitogens on the production of tumor necrosis factors alpha and betaJ Immunol. (1985)
  404. Numerof RP, Aronson FR, Mier JW. IL-2 stimulates the production of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta by human peripheral blood mononuclear cellsJ Immunol. (1988)
  405. Gorjão R, et al. Regulation of interleukin-2 signaling by fatty acids in human lymphocytesJ Lipid Res. (2007)
  406. Mathias S, et al. Activation of the sphingomyelin signaling pathway in intact EL4 cells and in a cell-free system by IL-1 betaScience. (1993)
  407. Szamel M, Resch K. T-cell antigen receptor-induced signal-transduction pathways–activation and function of protein kinases C in T lymphocytesEur J Biochem. (1995)
  408. Thienprasert A, et al. Fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively affect plasma cytokines and decrease illness in Thai schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trialJ Pediatr. (2009)
  409. Denys A, Hichami A, Khan NA. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid modulate MAP kinase (ERK1/ERK2) signaling in human T cellsJ Lipid Res. (2001)
  410. Denys A, Hichami A, Khan NA. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid modulate MAP kinase enzyme activity in human T-cellsMol Cell Biochem. (2002)
  411. Denys A, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates phorbol ester-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in NIH/3T3 cellsLipids. (2001)
  412. Denys A, Hichami A, Khan NA. n-3 PUFAs modulate T-cell activation via protein kinase C-alpha and -epsilon and the NF-kappaB signaling pathwayJ Lipid Res. (2005)
  413. Pot GK, et al. No effect of fish oil supplementation on serum inflammatory markers and their interrelationships: a randomized controlled trial in healthy, middle-aged individualsEur J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  414. Krysiak R, Gdula-Dymek A, Okopien B. The effect of bezafibrate and omega-3 fatty acids on lymphocyte cytokine release and systemic inflammation in patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemiaEur J Clin Pharmacol. (2011)
  415. Malekshahi Moghadam A, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsSingapore Med J. (2012)
  416. Gray P, et al. Fish oil supplementation augments post-exercise immune function in young malesBrain Behav Immun. (2012)
  417. Gleeson M, et al. The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of diseaseNat Rev Immunol. (2011)
  418. Andrade PM, et al. Effects of the fish-oil supplementation on the immune and inflammatory responses in elite swimmersProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2007)
  419. Ferrucci L, et al. Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markersJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2006)
  420. Fujioka S, et al. The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-fortified food on inflammatory markers in healthy subjects–A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2006)
  421. Vega-López S, et al. Supplementation with omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac alpha-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteersMetabolism. (2004)
  422. Bloomer RJ, et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over studyLipids Health Dis. (2009)
  423. Dangardt F, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves vascular function and reduces inflammation in obese adolescentsAtherosclerosis. (2010)
  424. Endres S, et al. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cellsN Engl J Med. (1989)
  425. Tayyebi-Khosroshahi H, et al. Effect of treatment with omega-3 fatty acids on C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alfa in hemodialysis patientsSaudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. (2012)
  426. Deike E, et al. The Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Markers of Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease PatientsJ Ren Nutr. (2012)
  427. Weaver KL, et al. Effect of dietary fatty acids on inflammatory gene expression in healthy humansJ Biol Chem. (2009)
  428. Reinders I, et al. Association of serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with C-reactive protein in menEur J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  429. Tomiyama H, et al. Relationships among the serum omega fatty acid levels, serum C-reactive protein levels and arterial stiffness/wave reflection in Japanese menAtherosclerosis. (2011)
  430. Ciubotaru I, Lee YS, Wander RC. Dietary fish oil decreases C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and triacylglycerol to HDL-cholesterol ratio in postmenopausal women on HRTJ Nutr Biochem. (2003)
  431. Poppitt SD, et al. Effects of moderate-dose omega-3 fish oil on cardiovascular risk factors and mood after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trialStroke. (2009)
  432. Skulas-Ray AC, et al. Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemiaAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  433. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, et al. Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: a randomized controlled trialBrain Behav Immun. (2011)
  434. Calder PC. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacologyBr J Clin Pharmacol. (2013)
  435. Kucia M, et al. CXCR4-SDF-1 signalling, locomotion, chemotaxis and adhesionJ Mol Histol. (2004)
  436. Schmidt EB, et al. Cod liver oil inhibits neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis in healthy malesAtherosclerosis. (1989)
  437. Effect of dietary fish oil supplemented with different doses of vitamin e on neutrophil chemotaxis in healthy volunteers.
  438. Schmidt EB, et al. Long-term supplementation with n-3 fatty acids, II: Effect on neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxisScand J Clin Lab Invest. (1992)
  439. Sperling RI, et al. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit phosphoinositide formation and chemotaxis in neutrophilsJ Clin Invest. (1993)
  440. Hughes DA, Pinder AC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the expression of functionally associated molecules on human monocytes and inhibit antigen-presentation in vitroClin Exp Immunol. (1997)
  441. Miles EA, Wallace FA, Calder PC. Dietary fish oil reduces intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and scavenger receptor expression on murine macrophagesAtherosclerosis. (2000)
  442. Sanderson P, Calder PC. Dietary fish oil diminishes lymphocyte adhesion to macrophage and endothelial cell monolayersImmunology. (1998)
  443. Collie-Duguid ES, Wahle KW. Inhibitory effect of fish oil N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of endothelial cell adhesion moleculesBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (1996)
  444. De Caterina R, et al. The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cellsArterioscler Thromb. (1994)
  445. Yamada H, et al. In vivo and in vitro inhibition of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and endothelial adhesion molecules by eicosapentaenoic acidArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2008)
  446. Hughes DA, et al. Fish oil supplementation inhibits the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and adhesion molecules on human monocytesAm J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  447. Luu NT, et al. Comparison of the pro-inflammatory potential of monocytes from healthy adults and those with peripheral arterial disease using an in vitro culture modelAtherosclerosis. (2007)
  448. Miles EA, et al. Influence of age and dietary fish oil on plasma soluble adhesion molecule concentrationsClin Sci (Lond). (2001)
  449. Nielsen MS, et al. The effect of low-dose marine n-3 fatty acids on the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase pathway metabolites in overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2012)
  450. Stanke-Labesque F, et al. Effect of dietary supplementation with increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid on neutrophil lipid composition and leukotriene production in human healthy volunteersBr J Nutr. (2008)
  451. Lee TH, et al. Effect of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil functionN Engl J Med. (1985)
  452. Elbim C, Lizard G. Flow cytometric investigation of neutrophil oxidative burst and apoptosis in physiological and pathological situationsCytometry A. (2009)
  453. Omori K, et al. Priming of neutrophil oxidative burst in diabetes requires preassembly of the NADPH oxidaseJ Leukoc Biol. (2008)
  454. Bonatto SJ, et al. Fish oil supplementation improves neutrophil function during cancer chemotherapyLipids. (2012)
  455. Kim SK, Demetri GD. Chemotherapy and neutropeniaHematol Oncol Clin North Am. (1996)
  456. Goldfarb Y, et al. Fish oil attenuates surgery-induced immunosuppression, limits post-operative metastatic dissemination and increases long-term recurrence-free survival in rodents inoculated with cancer cellsClin Nutr. (2012)
  457. Thies F, et al. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 yAm J Clin Nutr. (2001)
  458. Kelley DS, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy menLipids. (1999)
  459. Miles EA, et al. Limited effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell numbers and functions in healthy young malesNutrition. (2006)
  460. Hall TJ, et al. Modulation of human natural killer cell activity by pharmacological mediatorsClin Exp Immunol. (1983)
  461. Interleukin-2 augments natural killer cell activity.
  462. Harris DP, et al. Reciprocal regulation of polarized cytokine production by effector B and T cellsNat Immunol. (2000)
  463. Lund FE. Cytokine-producing B lymphocytes-key regulators of immunityCurr Opin Immunol. (2008)
  464. Rockett BD, et al. n-3 PUFA improves fatty acid composition, prevents palmitate-induced apoptosis, and differentially modifies B cell cytokine secretion in vitro and ex vivoJ Lipid Res. (2010)
  465. Rockett BD, et al. Fish oil increases raft size and membrane order of B cells accompanied by differential effects on functionJ Lipid Res. (2012)
  466. Gurzell EA, et al. DHA-enriched fish oil targets B cell lipid microdomains and enhances ex vivo and in vivo B cell functionJ Leukoc Biol. (2013)
  467. Chambers CA, Allison JP. Costimulatory regulation of T cell functionCurr Opin Cell Biol. (1999)
  468. Chapkin RS, et al. Dietary n-3 PUFA affect TcR-mediated activation of purified murine T cells and accessory cell function in co-culturesClin Exp Immunol. (2002)
  469. Arrington JL, et al. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate purified murine T-cell subset activationClin Exp Immunol. (2001)
  470. Ly LH, et al. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid modulates CTLA-4 expression in murine CD4+ T-cellsProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2006)
  471. Terada S, et al. Suppressive mechanisms of EPA on human T cell proliferationMicrobiol Immunol. (2001)
  472. Pompos LJ, Fritsche KL. Antigen-driven murine CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production are diminished by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acidsJ Nutr. (2002)
  473. Brix S, et al. CD4(+) T-cell activation is differentially modulated by bacteria-primed dendritic cells, but is generally down-regulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acidsImmunology. (2010)
  474. Thies F, et al. Dietary supplementation with gamma-linolenic acid or fish oil decreases T lymphocyte proliferation in healthy older humansJ Nutr. (2001)
  475. Kelley DS, et al. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid and immunocompetence in humansAm J Clin Nutr. (1991)
  476. Peres CM, Otton R, Curi R. Modulation of lymphocyte proliferation by macrophages and macrophages loaded with arachidonic acidCell Biochem Funct. (2005)
  477. Nishiyama A, et al. Arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and decreases interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production from concanavalin A-stimulated rat lymphocytesBiochim Biophys Acta. (2000)
  478. Fritsche KL, Johnston PV. Rapid autoxidation of fish oil in diets without added antioxidantsJ Nutr. (1988)
  479. Yin H, et al. Identification of novel autoxidation products of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid in vitro and in vivoJ Biol Chem. (2007)
  480. Esterbauer H, Schaur RJ, Zollner H. Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydesFree Radic Biol Med. (1991)
  481. Davis TA, et al. In vivo and in vitro lipid peroxidation of arachidonate esters: the effect of fish oil omega-3 lipids on product distributionJ Am Chem Soc. (2006)
  482. Gonzalez MJ, et al. Lipid peroxidation products are elevated in fish oil diets even in the presence of added antioxidantsJ Nutr. (1992)
  483. Seljeskog E, Hervig T, Mansoor MA. A novel HPLC method for the measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A comparison with a commercially available kitClin Biochem. (2006)
  484. Placer ZA, Cushman LL, Johnson BC. Estimation of product of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde) in biochemical systemsAnal Biochem. (1966)
  485. Pryor WA, Porter NA. Suggested mechanisms for the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal from the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acidsFree Radic Biol Med. (1990)
  486. Niki E. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in clinical materialBiochim Biophys Acta. (2013)
  487. Tholstrup T, et al. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in menJ Nutr. (2004)
  488. Mori TA. Effect of fish and fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids on lipid oxidationRedox Rep. (2004)
  489. Nälsén C, et al. Dietary (n-3) fatty acids reduce plasma F2-isoprostanes but not prostaglandin F2alpha in healthy humansJ Nutr. (2006)
  490. Ottestad I, et al. Oxidised fish oil does not influence established markers of oxidative stress in healthy human subjects: a randomised controlled trialBr J Nutr. (2011)
  491. Higdon JV, et al. Supplementation of postmenopausal women with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid is not associated with greater in vivo lipid peroxidation compared with oils rich in oleate and linoleate as assessed by plasma malondialdehyde and F(2)-isoprostanesAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  492. Ulven SM, et al. Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteersLipids. (2011)
  493. Higdon JV, et al. Supplementation of postmenopausal women with fish oil does not increase overall oxidation of LDL ex vivo compared to dietary oils rich in oleate and linoleateJ Lipid Res. (2001)
  494. Calzada C, et al. Subgram daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid protects low-density lipoproteins from oxidation in healthy menAtherosclerosis. (2010)
  495. Oostenbrug GS, et al. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin EJ Appl Physiol. (1997)
  496. Sen CK, et al. Fish oil and vitamin E supplementation in oxidative stress at rest and after physical exerciseJ Appl Physiol. (1997)
  497. Atalay M, et al. Vitamin E regulates changes in tissue antioxidants induced by fish oil and acute exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc. (2000)
  498. Polavarapu R, et al. Increased lipid peroxidation and impaired antioxidant enzyme function is associated with pathological liver injury in experimental alcoholic liver disease in rats fed diets high in corn oil and fish oilHepatology. (1998)
  499. Turner R, McLean CH, Silvers KM. Are the health benefits of fish oils limited by products of oxidationNutr Res Rev. (2006)
  500. Larsson SC, et al. Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanismsAm J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  501. Kikugawa K, et al. Protective effect of supplementation of fish oil with high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage of rat liver in vivoJ Agric Food Chem. (2003)
  502. Kikugawa K, et al. Effect of supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on oxidative stress-induced DNA damage of rat hepatocytesBiol Pharm Bull. (2003)
  503. Valko M, et al. Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancerChem Biol Interact. (2006)
  504. Schmitt D, et al. Toxicologic evaluation of DHA-rich algal oil: Genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity in ratsFood Chem Toxicol. (2012)
  505. Umegaki K, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation-increased oxidative damage in bone marrow DNA in aged rats and its relation to antioxidant vitaminsFree Radic Res. (2001)
  506. Hilakivi-Clarke L, et al. Mechanisms mediating the effects of prepubertal (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid diet on breast cancer risk in ratsJ Nutr. (2005)
  507. Kimura Y, et al. PUFAs in serum cholesterol ester and oxidative DNA damage in Japanese men and womenAm J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  508. Santos VC, et al. Effects of DHA-Rich Fish Oil Supplementation on Lymphocyte Function Before and After a Marathon RaceInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2013)
  509. Shoji H, et al. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation on oxidative stress levels during pregnancyFree Radic Res. (2006)
  510. Stonehouse W, et al. Consumption of salmon v. salmon oil capsules: effects on n-3 PUFA and selenium statusBr J Nutr. (2011)
  511. Ramel A, et al. Effects of weight loss and seafood consumption on inflammation parameters in young, overweight and obese European men and women during 8 weeks of energy restrictionEur J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  512. Bourque C, et al. Consumption of an oil composed of medium chain triacyglycerols, phytosterols, and N-3 fatty acids improves cardiovascular risk profile in overweight womenMetabolism. (2003)
  513. Kim YJ, Yokozawa T, Chung HY. Suppression of oxidative stress in aging NZB/NZW mice: effect of fish oil feeding on hepatic antioxidant status and guanidino compoundsFree Radic Res. (2005)
  514. Kim YJ, Yokozawa T, Chung HY. Effects of energy restriction and fish oil supplementation on renal guanidino levels and antioxidant defences in aged lupus-prone B/W miceBr J Nutr. (2005)
  515. Pedersen BK, et al. Modulation of natural killer cell activity in peripheral blood by physical exerciseScand J Immunol. (1988)
  516. Pedersen BK, et al. Indomethacin in vitro and in vivo abolishes post-exercise suppression of natural killer cell activity in peripheral bloodInt J Sports Med. (1990)
  517. Bernstein LR, et al. Shortened estrous cycle length, increased FSH levels, FSH variance, oocyte spindle aberrations, and early declining fertility in aging senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: concomitant characteristics of human midlife female reproductive agingEndocrinology. (2014)
  518. Klein NA, et al. Reproductive aging: accelerated ovarian follicular development associated with a monotropic follicle-stimulating hormone rise in normal older womenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (1996)
  519. Lee SJ, et al. The effect of age on the cyclical patterns of plasma LH, FSH, oestradiol and progesterone in women with regular menstrual cyclesHum Reprod. (1988)
  520. Nehra D, et al. Prolonging the female reproductive lifespan and improving egg quality with dietary omega-3 fatty acidsAging Cell. (2012)
  521. Al-Safi ZA, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Lowers Serum FSH in Normal Weight But Not Obese WomenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2016)
  522. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid requirements during pregnancy and lactation.
  523. Mozurkewich EL, et al. The Mothers, Omega-3, and Mental Health Study: a double-blind, randomized controlled trialAm J Obstet Gynecol. (2013)
  524. Makrides M, et al. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trialJAMA. (2010)
  525. Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Summary and recommendations of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The Organizing CommitteeDiabetes Care. (1998)
  526. Wang Y, et al. Dietary variables and glucose tolerance in pregnancyDiabetes Care. (2000)
  527. Bo S, et al. Dietary fat and gestational hyperglycaemiaDiabetologia. (2001)
  528. Radesky JS, et al. Diet during early pregnancy and development of gestational diabetesPaediatr Perinat Epidemiol. (2008)
  529. Zhou SJ, et al. Fish-oil supplementation in pregnancy does not reduce the risk of gestational diabetes or preeclampsiaAm J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  530. Friedman SA. Preeclampsia: a review of the role of prostaglandinsObstet Gynecol. (1988)
  531. Pedersen EB, et al. Prostaglandins, renin, aldosterone, and catecholamines in preeclampsiaActa Med Scand Suppl. (1983)
  532. Makrides M, Duley L, Olsen SF. Marine oil, and other prostaglandin precursor, supplementation for pregnancy uncomplicated by pre-eclampsia or intrauterine growth restrictionCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2006)
  533. Olsen SF, et al. Randomised controlled trial of effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy durationLancet. (1992)
  534. Koletzko B, Larqué E, Demmelmair H. Placental transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA)J Perinat Med. (2007)
  535. Hanebutt FL, et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) transfer across the placentaClin Nutr. (2008)
  536. Larqué E, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supply in pregnancy affects placental expression of fatty acid transport proteinsAm J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  537. Larque E, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B. Perinatal supply and metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: importance for the early development of the nervous systemAnn N Y Acad Sci. (2002)
  538. Su HM, et al. Fetal baboons convert 18:3n-3 to 22:6n-3 in vivo. A stable isotope tracer studyJ Lipid Res. (2001)
  539. Makrides M, et al. Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast- and formula-fed infantsAm J Clin Nutr. (1994)
  540. Gould JF, Smithers LG, Makrides M. The effect of maternal omega-3 (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on early childhood cognitive and visual development: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsAm J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  541. Dunstan JA, et al. Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trialArch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. (2008)
  542. van Goor SA, et al. Supplementation of DHA but not DHA with arachidonic acid during pregnancy and lactation influences general movement quality in 12-week-old term infantsBr J Nutr. (2010)
  543. Tofail F, et al. Supplementation of fish-oil and soy-oil during pregnancy and psychomotor development of infantsJ Health Popul Nutr. (2006)
  544. Helland IB, et al. Similar effects on infants of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids supplementation to pregnant and lactating womenPediatrics. (2001)
  545. Innis SM, Friesen RW. Essential n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women and early visual acuity maturation in term infantsAm J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  546. Decsi T, Campoy C, Koletzko B. Effect of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy: the Nuheal trialAdv Exp Med Biol. (2005)
  547. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial.
  548. Impact of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in the form of a functional food during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment: A comparison of vision, memory, temperament and problem-solving abilities.
  549. Farquharson J, et al. Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and dietLancet. (1992)
  550. Jamieson EC, et al. Infant cerebellar gray and white matter fatty acids in relation to age and dietLipids. (1999)
  551. Lapillonne A, et al. Lipid needs of preterm infants: updated recommendationsJ Pediatr. (2013)
  552. Straarup EM, et al. The stereospecific triacylglycerol structures and Fatty Acid profiles of human milk and infant formulasJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. (2006)
  553. Makrides M, Neumann MA, Gibson RA. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on breast milk compositionEur J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  554. Brenna JT, et al. Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid concentrations in human breast milk worldwideAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  555. Jensen CL, Lapillonne A. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactationProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2009)
  556. Francois CA, et al. Supplementing lactating women with flaxseed oil does not increase docosahexaenoic acid in their milkAm J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  557. Urwin HJ, et al. Salmon consumption during pregnancy alters fatty acid composition and secretory IgA concentration in human breast milkJ Nutr. (2012)
  558. Dunstan JA, et al. The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: a randomized controlled trialPediatr Res. (2007)
  559. Imhoff-Kunsch B, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation from mid-pregnancy to parturition influenced breast milk fatty acid concentrations at 1 month postpartum in Mexican womenJ Nutr. (2011)
  560. Helland IB, et al. Fatty acid composition in maternal milk and plasma during supplementation with cod liver oilEur J Clin Nutr. (1998)
  561. Boris J, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy and early lactation on the n-3 fatty acid content in human breast milkLipids. (2004)
  562. The Salmon in Pregnancy Study: study design, subject characteristics, maternal fish and marine n–3 fatty acid intake, and marine n–3 fatty acid status in maternal and umbilical cord blood.
  563. Makrides M, et al. Changes in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of breast milk from mothers of full-term infants over 30 wk of lactationAm J Clin Nutr. (1995)
  564. Moltó-Puigmartí C, et al. Differences in fat content and fatty acid proportions among colostrum, transitional, and mature milk from women delivering very preterm, preterm, and term infantsClin Nutr. (2011)
  565. SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retinaProg Retin Eye Res. (2005)
  566. Futterman S, Kupfer C. The fatty acid composition of the retinal vasculature of normal and diabetic human eyesInvest Ophthalmol. (1968)
  567. Tikhonenko M, et al. Remodeling of retinal Fatty acids in an animal model of diabetes: a decrease in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a decrease in fatty acid elongases Elovl2 and Elovl4Diabetes. (2010)
  568. Decsi T, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids of diabetic childrenProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2002)
  569. Tikhonenko M, et al. N-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent diabetic retinopathy by inhibition of retinal vascular damage and enhanced endothelial progenitor cell reparative functionPLoS One. (2013)
  570. Opreanu M, et al. The unconventional role of acid sphingomyelinase in regulation of retinal microangiopathy in diabetic human and animal modelsDiabetes. (2011)
  571. Connor KM, et al. Increased dietary intake of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces pathological retinal angiogenesisNat Med. (2007)
  572. Kang JX, et al. Transgenic mice: fat-1 mice convert n-6 to n-3 fatty acidsNature. (2004)
  573. Henquin JC. Triggering and amplifying pathways of regulation of insulin secretion by glucoseDiabetes. (2000)
  574. McDaniel ML, et al. Cytokines and nitric oxide in islet inflammation and diabetesProc Soc Exp Biol Med. (1996)
  575. Luo P, Wang MH. Eicosanoids, β-cell function, and diabetesProstaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. (2011)
  576. Tran PO, Gleason CE, Robertson RP. Inhibition of interleukin-1beta-induced COX-2 and EP3 gene expression by sodium salicylate enhances pancreatic islet beta-cell functionDiabetes. (2002)
  577. Robertson RP. Arachidonic acid metabolite regulation of insulin secretionDiabetes Metab Rev. (1986)
  578. Fujita H, et al. Effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor treatment on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in C57BL/6 miceBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2007)
  579. Robertson RP. Dominance of cyclooxygenase-2 in the regulation of pancreatic islet prostaglandin synthesisDiabetes. (1998)
  580. Tran PO, et al. Prostaglandin E(2) mediates inhibition of insulin secretion by interleukin-1betaJ Biol Chem. (1999)
  581. Persaud SJ, et al. The role of arachidonic acid and its metabolites in insulin secretion from human islets of langerhansDiabetes. (2007)
  582. Oshima H, Taketo MM, Oshima M. Destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by transgenic induction of prostaglandin E2 in the isletsJ Biol Chem. (2006)
  583. Dobrian AD, et al. Functional and pathological roles of the 12- and 15-lipoxygenasesProg Lipid Res. (2011)
  584. Weaver JR, et al. Integration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, 12-lipoxygenase and NOX-1 in pancreatic islet beta cell dysfunctionMol Cell Endocrinol. (2012)
  585. Metz SA, Murphy RC, Fujimoto W. Effects on glucose-induced insulin secretion of lipoxygenase-derived metabolites of arachidonic acidDiabetes. (1984)
  586. Ma K, et al. 12-Lipoxygenase Products Reduce Insulin Secretion and {beta}-Cell Viability in Human IsletsJ Clin Endocrinol Metab. (2010)
  587. Wei D, et al. Cellular production of n-3 PUFAs and reduction of n-6-to-n-3 ratios in the pancreatic beta-cells and islets enhance insulin secretion and confer protection against cytokine-induced cell deathDiabetes. (2010)
  588. Bellenger J, et al. High pancreatic n-3 fatty acids prevent STZ-induced diabetes in fat-1 mice: inflammatory pathway inhibitionDiabetes. (2011)
  589. Wong CY, et al. Fish-oil supplement has neutral effects on vascular and metabolic function but improves renal function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitusDiabet Med. (2010)
  590. Garman JH, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid rich diet prevents diabetic renal diseaseAm J Physiol Renal Physiol. (2009)
  591. Logan JL, Benson B, Lee SM. Dietary fish oil enhances renal hypertrophy in experimental diabetesDiabetes Res Clin Pract. (1990)
  592. Hagiwara S, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates diabetic nephropathy of type 2 diabetic KKAy/Ta mice: involvement of MCP-1 suppression and decreased ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylationNephrol Dial Transplant. (2006)
  593. Shapiro H, et al. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption in diabetic nephropathyNat Rev Nephrol. (2011)
  594. Hakim IA, Harris RB, Ritenbaugh C. Fat intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skinNutr Cancer. (2000)
  595. Kune GA, et al. Diet, alcohol, smoking, serum beta-carotene, and vitamin A in male nonmelanocytic skin cancer patients and controlsNutr Cancer. (1992)
  596. Wallingford SC, et al. Intake of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and risk of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin: a longitudinal community-based study in Australian adultsNutr Cancer. (2012)
  597. Fischer MA, Black HS. Modification of membrane composition, eicosanoid metabolism, and immunoresponsiveness by dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid sources, modulators of ultraviolet-carcinogenesisPhotochem Photobiol. (1991)
  598. Pilkington SM, et al. Randomized controlled trial of oral omega-3 PUFA in solar-simulated radiation-induced suppression of human cutaneous immune responsesAm J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  599. Lou YR, et al. Effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 miceCarcinogenesis. (2011)
  600. Black HS, et al. Influence of dietary omega-6, -3 fatty acid sources on the initiation and promotion stages of photocarcinogenesisPhotochem Photobiol. (1992)
  601. Orengo IF, et al. Influence of dietary menhaden oil upon carcinogenesis and various cutaneous responses to ultraviolet radiationPhotochem Photobiol. (1989)
  602. Ziboh VA, Miller CC. Essential fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids: significance in cutaneous biologyAnnu Rev Nutr. (1990)
  603. Reeve VE, Bosnic M, Boehm-Wilcox C. Dependence of photocarcinogenesis and photoimmunosuppression in the hairless mouse on dietary polyunsaturated fatCancer Lett. (1996)
  604. Fukui M, et al. EPA, an omega-3 fatty acid, induces apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells: role of ROS accumulation, caspase-8 activation, and autophagy inductionJ Cell Biochem. (2013)
  605. Lucia MS, Torkko KC. Inflammation as a target for prostate cancer chemoprevention: pathological and laboratory rationaleJ Urol. (2004)
  606. Chavarro JE, et al. A prospective study of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood and prostate cancer riskCancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (2007)
  607. Voigt RG, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorderJ Pediatr. (2001)
  608. Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficultiesProg Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. (2002)
  609. Stevens L, et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviorsLipids. (2003)
  610. Sinn N, Bryan J. Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHDJ Dev Behav Pediatr. (2007)
  611. Bélanger SA, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyPaediatr Child Health. (2009)
  612. Bos DJ, et al. Reduced Symptoms of Inattention after Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Boys with and without Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderNeuropsychopharmacology. (2015)
  613. Widenhorn-Müller K, et al. Effect of supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on behavior and cognition in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo-controlled intervention trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2014)
  614. Gustafsson PA, et al. EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHDActa Paediatr. (2010)
  615. Bloch MH, Qawasmi A. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysisJ Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. (2011)
  616. Gillies D, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescentsCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2012)
  617. Aman MG, Mitchell EA, Turbott SH. The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation by Efamol in hyperactive childrenJ Abnorm Child Psychol. (1987)
  618. Arnold LE, et al. Gamma-linolenic acid for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled comparison to D-amphetamineBiol Psychiatry. (1989)
  619. Raz R, Carasso RL, Yehuda S. The influence of short-chain essential fatty acids on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled studyJ Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. (2009)
  620. Hirayama S, Hamazaki T, Terasawa K. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a placebo-controlled double-blind studyEur J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  621. Ilowite NT, et al. Effects of dietary modification and fish oil supplementation on dyslipoproteinemia in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosusJ Rheumatol. (1995)
  622. Prickett JD, Robinson DR, Steinberg AD. Dietary enrichment with the polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid prevents proteinuria and prolongs survival in NZB x NZW F1 miceJ Clin Invest. (1981)
  623. Robinson DR, et al. The protective effect of dietary fish oil on murine lupusProstaglandins. (1985)
  624. Rhodes LE, et al. Dietary fish-oil supplementation in humans reduces UVB-erythemal sensitivity but increases epidermal lipid peroxidationJ Invest Dermatol. (1994)
  625. Rhodes LE, et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on UVR-related cancer risk in humans. An assessment of early genotoxic markersCarcinogenesis. (2003)
  626. Pyrimidine dimers in DNA initiate systemic immunosuppression in UV-irradiated mice.
  627. Damian DL, Barnetson RS, Halliday GM. Effects of low-dose ultraviolet radiation on in vivo human cutaneous recall responsesAustralas J Dermatol. (2001)
  628. Sivapirabu G, et al. Topical nicotinamide modulates cellular energy metabolism and provides broad-spectrum protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced immunosuppression in humansBr J Dermatol. (2009)
  629. Noonan FP, De Fabo EC, Kripke ML. Suppression of contact hypersensitivity by UV radiation and its relationship to UV-induced suppression of tumor immunityPhotochem Photobiol. (1981)
  630. Theilla M, et al. A diet enriched in eicosapentanoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the prevention of new pressure ulcer formation in critically ill patients with acute lung injury: A randomized, prospective, controlled studyClin Nutr. (2007)
  631. Singer P, et al. Benefit of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid in ventilated patients with acute lung injuryCrit Care Med. (2006)
  632. Theilla M, et al. Enteral n-3 fatty acids and micronutrients enhance percentage of positive neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion molecules: a potential mediator of pressure ulcer healing in critically ill patientsBr J Nutr. (2012)
  633. Theilla M, et al. Impact of a nutritional formula enriched in fish oil and micronutrients on pressure ulcers in critical care patientsAm J Crit Care. (2012)
  634. Fish-oil-rich diet lowers bedsore symptoms by 20-25%.
  635. Colombe L, et al. Prostaglandin metabolism in human hair follicleExp Dermatol. (2007)
  636. Yamamoto K, et al. Hair follicular expression and function of group X secreted phospholipase A2 in mouse skinJ Biol Chem. (2011)
  637. Torii E, et al. Expression of prostaglandin E(2) receptor subtypes in mouse hair folliclesBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2002)
  638. Müller-Decker K, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase isozymes during morphogenesis and cycling of pelage hair follicles in mouse skin: precocious onset of the first catagen phase and alopecia upon cyclooxygenase-2 overexpressionJ Invest Dermatol. (2003)
  639. Roenigk HH Jr. New topical agents for hair growthClin Dermatol. (1988)
  640. Johnstone MA, Albert DM. Prostaglandin-induced hair growthSurv Ophthalmol. (2002)
  641. Sasaki S, Hozumi Y, Kondo S. Influence of prostaglandin F2alpha and its analogues on hair regrowth and follicular melanogenesis in a murine modelExp Dermatol. (2005)
  642. Neufang G, et al. Abnormal differentiation of epidermis in transgenic mice constitutively expressing cyclooxygenase-2 in skinProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2001)
  643. Bol DK, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression in the skin of transgenic mice results in suppression of tumor developmentCancer Res. (2002)
  644. Colombe L, Michelet JF, Bernard BA. Prostanoid receptors in anagen human hair folliclesExp Dermatol. (2008)
  645. Bauman DR, Steckelbroeck S, Penning TM. The roles of aldo-keto reductases in steroid hormone actionDrug News Perspect. (2004)
  646. Chen W, et al. Human sebocytes express prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 but treatment with prostaglandin E2 does not affect testosterone productionBr J Dermatol. (2009)
  647. Zhu H, et al. Expression and regulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin d synthase in rat testis and epididymisBiol Reprod. (2004)
  648. Treister NS, et al. Influence of androgens on gene expression in the BALB/c mouse submandibular glandJ Dent Res. (2005)
  649. Garza LA, et al. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopeciaSci Transl Med. (2012)
  650. Obata T, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits prostaglandin D2 generation by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase-2 in cultured human mast cellsClin Exp Allergy. (1999)
  651. Tanaka Y, Otsuji A, Amano F. Suppression of prostaglandin synthesis by arachidonic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid in a macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, treated with LPSBiol Pharm Bull. (1999)
  652. Kirby NA, et al. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acidsJ Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). (2009)
  653. Rees CA, et al. Effects of dietary flax seed and sunflower seed supplementation on normal canine serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and skin and hair coat condition scoresVet Dermatol. (2001)
  654. Sastry PS. Lipids of nervous tissue: composition and metabolismProg Lipid Res. (1985)
  655. Cansev M. Uridine and cytidine in the brain: their transport and utilizationBrain Res Rev. (2006)
  656. Ross BM, et al. Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes in human brainLipids. (1997)
  657. Wurtman RJ, Cansev M, Ulus IH. Synapse formation is enhanced by oral administration of uridine and DHA, the circulating precursors of brain phosphatidesJ Nutr Health Aging. (2009)
  658. Wurtman RJ, et al. Synaptic proteins and phospholipids are increased in gerbil brain by administering uridine plus docosahexaenoic acid orallyBrain Res. (2006)
  659. Damsgaard CT, et al. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy menJ Nutr. (2008)
  660. Sofi F, et al. The atherosclerotic risk profile is affected differently by fish flesh with a similar EPA and DHA content but different n-6/n-3 ratioAsia Pac J Clin Nutr. (2013)
  661. Damsgaard CT, Frøkiaer H, Lauritzen L. The effects of fish oil and high or low linoleic acid intake on fatty acid composition of human peripheral blood mononuclear cellsBr J Nutr. (2008)
  662. Otton R, et al. Combined fish oil and astaxanthin supplementation modulates rat lymphocyte functionEur J Nutr. (2012)
  663. Bolin AP, et al. Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytesCell Biol Toxicol. (2010)
  664. Pompéia C, et al. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functionBraz J Med Biol Res. (2000)
  665. Altenburg JD, et al. A synergistic antiproliferation effect of curcumin and docosahexaenoic acid in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells: unique signaling not explained by the effects of either compound aloneBMC Cancer. (2011)
  666. Saw CL, Huang Y, Kong AN. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of low doses of curcumin in combination with polyunsaturated fatty acids: docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acidBiochem Pharmacol. (2010)
  667. Jia Q, et al. Dietary fish oil and curcumin combine to modulate colonic cytokinetics and gene expression in dextran sodium sulphate-treated miceBr J Nutr. (2011)
  668. Zuccato C, Cattaneo E. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurodegenerative diseasesNat Rev Neurol. (2009)
  669. Nagappan G, Lu B. Activity-dependent modulation of the BDNF receptor TrkB: mechanisms and implicationsTrends Neurosci. (2005)
  670. Suzuki H, et al. Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil dietMech Ageing Dev. (1998)
  671. Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognitionNeuroscience. (2008)
  672. Wu A, Ying Z, Gomez-Pinilla F. Dietary curcumin counteracts the outcome of traumatic brain injury on oxidative stress, synaptic plasticity, and cognitionExp Neurol. (2006)
  673. Gomez-Pinilla F. Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancementNutr Health. (2011)
  674. Maeda H, et al. Dietary combination of fucoxanthin and fish oil attenuates the weight gain of white adipose tissue and decreases blood glucose in obese/diabetic KK-Ay miceJ Agric Food Chem. (2007)
  675. Hamden K, et al. Inhibitory potential of omega-3 fatty and fenugreek essential oil on key enzymes of carbohydrate-digestion and hypertension in diabetes ratsLipids Health Dis. (2011)
  676. Mikami N, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K. Dietary combination of fish oil and taurine decreases fat accumulation and ameliorates blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic/obese KK-A(y) miceJ Food Sci. (2012)
  677. Nozue T, et al. Effects of serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratios on coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients with coronary artery diseaseAm J Cardiol. (2013)
  678. Lee SP, et al. Effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on cardiovascular risk measures in patients treated with statins: a pilot studyBr J Nutr. (2012)
  679. Ballantyne CM, et al. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study)Am J Cardiol. (2012)
  680. Vecka M, et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemiaNeuro Endocrinol Lett. (2012)
  681. Sasaki J, Miwa T, Odawara M. Administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid to statin-treated diabetic patients further improves vascular functionEndocr J. (2012)
  682. Becker DJ, et al. Simvastatin vs therapeutic lifestyle changes and supplements: randomized primary prevention trialMayo Clin Proc. (2008)
  683. Agouridis AP, et al. The effects of rosuvastatin alone or in combination with fenofibrate or omega 3 fatty acids on inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with mixed dyslipidemiaExpert Opin Pharmacother. (2011)
  684. Agouridis AP, et al. Effect of rosuvastatin monotherapy or in combination with fenofibrate or ω-3 fatty acids on lipoprotein subfraction profile in patients with mixed dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndromeInt J Clin Pract. (2012)
  685. Agouridis AP, et al. High doses of rosuvastatin are superior to low doses of rosuvastatin plus fenofibrate or n-3 fatty acids in mixed dyslipidemiaLipids. (2011)
  686. Tsuji M, et al. Relationship between RBC mercury levels and serum n3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations among Japanese men and womenJ Environ Public Health. (2012)
  687. Boadi WY, et al. In vitro effect of mercury on enzyme activities and its accumulation in the first-trimester human placentaEnviron Res. (1992)
  688. Grandjean P, et al. Impact of maternal seafood diet on fetal exposure to mercury, selenium, and leadArch Environ Health. (1992)
  689. Huang MC, et al. Placental docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids correlate weakly with placental polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and are uncorrelated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at delivery: a pilot studyFood Chem Toxicol. (2011)
  690. Domingo JL, et al. Benefits and risks of fish consumption Part I. A quantitative analysis of the intake of omega-3 fatty acids and chemical contaminantsToxicology. (2007)
  691. Hightower JM, Moore D. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fishEnviron Health Perspect. (2003)
  692. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil.
  693. Choi AL, et al. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whaling menEnviron Health Perspect. (2009)
  694. Mercury as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.
  695. Smith KL, Guentzel JL. Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefitsMar Pollut Bull. (2010)
  696. Mozaffarian D, et al. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohortsN Engl J Med. (2011)
  697. Yoshizawa K, et al. Mercury and the risk of coronary heart disease in menN Engl J Med. (2002)
  698. Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Jeffries RA. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfishEnviron Res. (2008)
  699. Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM, Harris KA. Intakes of long-chain omega-3 fatty acid associated with reduced risk for death from coronary heart disease in healthy adultsCurr Atheroscler Rep. (2008)
  700. Psota TL, Gebauer SK, Kris-Etherton P. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular riskAm J Cardiol. (2006)
  701. Connor WE, DeFrancesco CA, Connor SL. N-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Effects on plasma lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemic patientsAnn N Y Acad Sci. (1993)
  702. Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease.
  703. Hites RA, et al. Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmonScience. (2004)
  704. Foran JA, et al. Risk-based consumption advice for farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon contaminated with dioxins and dioxin-like compoundsEnviron Health Perspect. (2005)
  705. Levine KE, et al. Determination of mercury in an assortment of dietary supplements using an inexpensive combustion atomic absorption spectrometry techniqueJ Autom Methods Manag Chem. (2005)
  706. Schaller JL. Mercury and fish oil supplementsMedGenMed. (2001)
  707. Melanson SF, et al. Measurement of organochlorines in commercial over-the-counter fish oil preparations: implications for dietary and therapeutic recommendations for omega-3 fatty acids and a review of the literatureArch Pathol Lab Med. (2005)
  708. Sarris J, Mischoulon D, Schweitzer I. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depressionJ Clin Psychiatry. (2012)
  709. Sublette ME, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depressionJ Clin Psychiatry. (2011)
  710. Geelen A, et al. Intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish does not lower serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr. (2004)
  711. Pase MP, Grima NA, Sarris J. Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trialsBr J Nutr. (2011)
  712. Pittet YK, et al. Blunting the response to endotoxin in healthy subjects: effects of various doses of intravenous fish oilIntensive Care Med. (2010)
  713. Mozaffarian D, et al. Effect of fish oil on heart rate in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsCirculation. (2005)
  714. Madsen T, et al. The effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of C-reactive protein: a dose-response studyBr J Nutr. (2003)
  715. Sanders TA, et al. Effect of low doses of long-chain n-3 PUFAs on endothelial function and arterial stiffness: a randomized controlled trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  716. Shidfar F, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on serum lipids, apolipoproteins and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes patientsEast Mediterr Health J. (2008)
  717. Michaeli B, et al. Effects of fish oil on the neuro-endocrine responses to an endotoxin challenge in healthy volunteersClin Nutr. (2007)
  718. Nobili V, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases liver fat content in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: double-blind randomised controlled clinical trialArch Dis Child. (2011)
  719. Vargas ML, et al. Metabolic and endocrine effects of long-chain versus essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in polycystic ovary syndromeMetabolism. (2011)
  720. Nahas R, Sheikh O. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of major depressive disorderCan Fam Physician. (2011)
  721. Hendra TJ, et al. Effects of fish oil supplements in NIDDM subjects. Controlled studyDiabetes Care. (1990)
  722. Olendzki BC, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with marine and botanical oils: influence on serum lipidsEvid Based Complement Alternat Med. (2011)
  723. McManus RM, et al. A comparison of the effects of n-3 fatty acids from linseed oil and fish oil in well-controlled type II diabetesDiabetes Care. (1996)
  724. Jahangard L, et al. Influence of adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, sleep, and emotion regulation among outpatients with major depressive disorders – Results from a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trialJ Psychiatr Res. (2018)
  725. Borkman M, et al. Effects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDMDiabetes. (1989)
  726. Lenn J, et al. The effects of fish oil and isoflavones on delayed onset muscle sorenessMed Sci Sports Exerc. (2002)
  727. Thusgaard M, et al. Effect of fish oil (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studyScand J Infect Dis. (2009)
  728. Paulo MC, et al. Influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on soluble cellular adhesion molecules as biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in young healthy subjectsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2008)
  729. Maki KC, et al. Effects of prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters on fasting lipid profile in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemiaJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (2011)
  730. Finocchiaro C, et al. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on patients with advanced lung cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled studyBr J Nutr. (2011)
  731. Filaire E, et al. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2010)
  732. Tartibian B, Maleki BH, Abbasi A. The effects of ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids on perceived pain and external symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness in untrained menClin J Sport Med. (2009)
  733. Pooya Sh, et al. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patientsNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. (2010)
  734. Phelan N, et al. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trialAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  735. Munro IA, Garg ML. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA does not promote weight loss when combined with a very-low-energy dietBr J Nutr. (2012)
  736. Fakhrzadeh H, et al. The effects of low dose n-3 fatty acids on serum lipid profiles and insulin resistance of the elderly: a randomized controlled clinical trialInt J Vitam Nutr Res. (2010)
  737. Kooshki A, et al. Effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patientsAnn Nutr Metab. (2011)
  738. Dawczynski C, et al. n-3 LC-PUFA-enriched dairy products are able to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: a double-blind, cross-over studyClin Nutr. (2010)
  739. Bays HE, et al. The effect of prescription omega-3 fatty acids on body weight after 8 to 16 weeks of treatment for very high triglyceride levelsPostgrad Med. (2009)
  740. Akinkuolie AO, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsClin Nutr. (2011)
  741. Pelikánová T, et al. Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patientsAnn N Y Acad Sci. (1993)
  742. Yusof HM, Miles EA, Calder P. Influence of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids on plasma markers of inflammation in middle-aged menProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2008)
  743. Mackay I, et al. Effect of Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on markers of platelet and endothelial function in patients with peripheral arterial diseaseAtherosclerosis. (2012)
  744. Oliveira JM, Rondó PH. Omega-3 fatty acids and hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected subjects on antiretroviral therapy: systematic review and meta-analysisHIV Clin Trials. (2011)
  745. Serebruany VL, et al. Early impact of prescription Omega-3 fatty acids on platelet biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertriglyceridemiaCardiology. (2011)
  746. Schuchardt JP, et al. Moderate doses of EPA and DHA from re-esterified triacylglycerols but not from ethyl-esters lower fasting serum triacylglycerols in statin-treated dyslipidemic subjects: Results from a six month randomized controlled trialProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2011)
  747. Vinding RK, et al. Effect of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on bone, lean, and fat mass at six years: randomised clinical trialBMJ. (2018)
  748. Behboudi-Gandevani S, Hariri FZ, Moghaddam-Banaem L. The effect of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on premenstrual syndrome and health-related quality of life: a randomized clinical trialJ Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. (2018)
  749. Sohrabi N, et al. Evaluation of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: „a pilot trial“Complement Ther Med. (2013)
  750. Watanabe N, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for a better mental state in working populations – Happy Nurse Project: A 52-week randomized controlled trialJ Psychiatr Res. (2018)
  751. Montgomery P, et al. Fatty acids and sleep in UK children: subjective and pilot objective sleep results from the DOLAB study–a randomized controlled trialJ Sleep Res. (2014)
  752. Cohen LS, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 for vasomotor symptoms treatment: a randomized controlled trialMenopause. (2014)
  753. Byleveld PM, et al. Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of miceJ Nutr. (1999)
  754. Schwerbrock NM, et al. Fish oil-fed mice have impaired resistance to influenza infectionJ Nutr. (2009)
  755. Byleveld M, et al. Fish oil feeding enhances lymphocyte proliferation but impairs virus-specific T lymphocyte cytotoxicity in mice following challenge with influenza virusClin Exp Immunol. (2000)
  756. Wang C, et al. n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic reviewAm J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  757. Gerster H. Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)?Int J Vitam Nutr Res. (1998)
  758. Fokkema MR, et al. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extentProstaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2000)
  759. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015Lancet. (2016)
  760. Go AS, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2013 update: a report from the American Heart AssociationCirculation. (2013)
  761. McGill HC Jr, McMahan CA, Gidding SS. Preventing heart disease in the 21st century: implications of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) studyCirculation. (2008)
  762. Bang HO, Dyerberg J, Sinclair HM. The composition of the Eskimo food in north western GreenlandAm J Clin Nutr. (1980)
  763. Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseaseCirculation. (2002)
  764. Hooper L, et al. Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseaseCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2004)
  765. Siscovick DS, et al. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart AssociationCirculation. (2017)
  766. Zheng J, et al. Fish consumption and CHD mortality: an updated meta-analysis of seventeen cohort studiesPublic Health Nutr. (2012)
  767. Jepsen P, et al. Interpretation of observational studiesHeart. (2004)
  768. Hemkens LG, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Ioannidis JP. Agreement of treatment effects for mortality from routinely collected data and subsequent randomized trials: meta-epidemiological surveyBMJ. (2016)
  769. Libby P. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanismsAm J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  770. Innes JK, Calder PC. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic ReviewInt J Mol Sci. (2018)
  771. Rhee JJ, et al. Fish Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Risk of Cardiovascular DiseaseAm J Prev Med. (2017)
  772. Petsini F, Fragopoulou E, Antonopoulou S. Fish consumption and cardiovascular disease related biomarkers: A review of clinical trialsCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2018)
  773. Jackowski SA, et al. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safetyJ Nutr Sci. (2015)
  774. Albert BB, et al. Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFASci Rep. (2015)
  775. Opperman M, Benade S. Analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid content of South African fish oil supplements: a follow-up studyCardiovasc J Afr. (2013)
  776. Maggio M, et al. The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in MenInt J Endocrinol. (2014)
  777. Maggio M, et al. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older menInt J Androl. (2011)
  778. Rodgers S, et al. Serum testosterone levels and symptom-based depression subtypes in menFront Psychiatry. (2015)
  779. Johnson JM, Nachtigall LB, Stern TA. The effect of testosterone levels on mood in men: a reviewPsychosomatics. (2013)
  780. Bassil N, Alkaade S, Morley JE. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a reviewTher Clin Risk Manag. (2009)
  781. Zarrouf FA, et al. Testosterone and depression: systematic review and meta-analysisJ Psychiatr Pract. (2009)
  782. Davis SR, Wahlin-Jacobsen S. Testosterone in women–the clinical significanceLancet Diabetes Endocrinol. (2015)
  783. Martínez-Cengotitabengoa M, González-Pinto A. Nutritional supplements in depressive disordersActas Esp Psiquiatr. (2017)
  784. Cortese BM, Phan KL. The role of glutamate in anxiety and related disordersCNS Spectr. (2005)
  785. Bergink V, van Megen HJ, Westenberg HG. Glutamate and anxietyEur Neuropsychopharmacol. (2004)
  786. Tarleton EK, Littenberg B. Magnesium intake and depression in adultsJ Am Board Fam Med. (2015)
  787. Derom ML, et al. Magnesium and depression: a systematic reviewNutr Neurosci. (2013)
  788. Boyle NB, Lawton C, Dye L. The Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Subjective Anxiety and Stress-A Systematic ReviewNutrients. (2017)
  789. Fard FE, et al. Effects of zinc and magnesium supplements on postpartum depression and anxiety: A randomized controlled clinical trialWomen Health. (2017)
  790. Phelan D, et al. Magnesium and mood disorders: systematic review and meta-analysisBJPsych Open. (2018)
  791. Nielsen FH, Lukaski HC. Update on the relationship between magnesium and exerciseMagnes Res. (2006)
  792. Costello RB, Moser-Veillon PB. A review of magnesium intake in the elderly. A cause for concern?Magnes Res. (1992)
  793. Tang YM, et al. Relationships between micronutrient losses in sweat and blood pressure among heat-exposed steelworkersInd Health. (2016)
  794. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research; Marriott BM, editor. Washington (DC). Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments, “Influence of Exercise and Heat on Magnesium Metabolism”National Academies Press (US). (1993)
  795. Consolazio CF, et al. Excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium and iron in human sweat and the relation of each to balance and requirementsJ Nutr. (1963)
  796. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, page 242.
  797. Yoshimura Y, et al. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Orally Administered Magnesium Oxide in RatsYakugaku Zasshi. (2017)
  798. Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparationsMagnes Res. (2001)
  799. Li Z, et al. Association of total zinc, iron, copper and selenium intakes with depression in the US adultsJ Affect Disord. (2018)
  800. Roy A, et al. Higher zinc intake buffers the impact of stress on depressive symptoms in pregnancyNutr Res. (2010)
  801. Ranjbar E, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation in patients with major depression: a randomized clinical trialIran J Psychiatry. (2013)
  802. Swardfager W, et al. Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorderNeurosci Biobehav Rev. (2013)
  803. Nowak G, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled studyPol J Pharmacol. (2003)
  804. Netter A, Hartoma R, Nahoul K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm countArch Androl. (1981)
  805. Chang CS, et al. Correlation between serum testosterone level and concentrations of copper and zinc in hair tissueBiol Trace Elem Res. (2011)
  806. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.
  807. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common coldCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2011)
  808. Valentiner-Branth P, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc as adjuvant therapy in children 2-35 mo of age with severe or nonsevere pneumonia in Bhaktapur, NepalAm J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  809. Willis MS, et al. Zinc-induced copper deficiency: a report of three cases initially recognized on bone marrow examinationAm J Clin Pathol. (2005)
  810. Afrin LB. Fatal copper deficiency from excessive use of zinc-based denture adhesiveAm J Med Sci. (2010)
  811. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, page 446.
  812. Meunier N, et al. Importance of zinc in the elderly: the ZENITH studyEur J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  813. Blumberg J. Nutritional needs of seniorsJ Am Coll Nutr. (1997)
  814. Tipton K, et al. Zinc loss in sweat of athletes exercising in hot and neutral temperaturesInt J Sport Nutr. (1993)
  815. Parker GB, Brotchie H, Graham RK. Vitamin D and depressionJ Affect Disord. (2017)
  816. Allan GM, et al. Vitamin D: A Narrative Review Examining the Evidence for Ten BeliefsJ Gen Intern Med. (2016)
  817. Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The „sunshine“ vitaminJ Pharmacol Pharmacother. (2012)
  818. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiencyN Engl J Med. (2007)
  819. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adultsNutr Res. (2011)
  820. Melrose S. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment ApproachesDepress Res Treat. (2015)
  821. Kerr DC, et al. Associations between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in healthy young adult womenPsychiatry Res. (2015)
  822. O’Hare C, et al. Seasonal and meteorological associations with depressive symptoms in older adults: A geo-epidemiological studyJ Affect Disord. (2016)
  823. Golden RN, et al. The efficacy of light therapy in the treatment of mood disorders: a review and meta-analysis of the evidenceAm J Psychiatry. (2005)
  824. Lam RW, et al. The Can-SAD study: a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorderAm J Psychiatry. (2006)
  825. Vellekkatt F, Menon V. Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in major depression: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJ Postgrad Med. (2018)
  826. Spedding S. Vitamin D and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flawsNutrients. (2014)
  827. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.
  828. Cashman KD, et al. Improved Dietary Guidelines for Vitamin D: Application of Individual Participant Data (IPD)-Level Meta-Regression AnalysesNutrients. (2017)
  829. Heaney R, et al. Letter to Veugelers, P.J. and Ekwaru, J.P., A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D. Nutrients 2014, 6, 4472-4475; doi:10.3390/nu6104472Nutrients. (2015)
  830. Veugelers PJ, Ekwaru JP. A statistical error in the estimation of the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin DNutrients. (2014)
  831. Grosso G, et al. Dietary n-3 PUFA, fish consumption and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studiesJ Affect Disord. (2016)
  832. Mocking RJ, et al. Meta-analysis and meta-regression of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for major depressive disorderTransl Psychiatry. (2016)
  833. Bastiaansen JA, et al. The efficacy of fish oil supplements in the treatment of depression: food for thoughtTransl Psychiatry. (2016)
  834. Lane K, et al. Bioavailability and potential uses of vegetarian sources of omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the literatureCrit Rev Food Sci Nutr. (2014)
  835. Hussein N, et al. Long-chain conversion of 13Clinoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in menJ Lipid Res. (2005)
  836. Pawlosky RJ, et al. Physiological compartmental analysis of alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in adult humansJ Lipid Res. (2001)
  837. Emken EA, Adlof RO, Gulley RM. Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult malesBiochim Biophys Acta. (1994)
  838. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition, page 245, table 49.
  839. Jenkins TA, et al. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-Brain AxisNutrients. (2016)
  840. Cowen PJ, Browning M. What has serotonin to do with depression?World Psychiatry. (2015)
  841. Feder A, et al. Tryptophan depletion and emotional processing in healthy volunteers at high risk for depressionBiol Psychiatry. (2011)
  842. Richard DM, et al. L-Tryptophan: Basic Metabolic Functions, Behavioral Research and Therapeutic IndicationsInt J Tryptophan Res. (2009)
  843. Young SN, Leyton M. The role of serotonin in human mood and social interaction. Insight from altered tryptophan levelsPharmacol Biochem Behav. (2002)
  844. Lindseth G, Helland B, Caspers J. The effects of dietary tryptophan on affective disordersArch Psychiatr Nurs. (2015)
  845. Kroes MC, et al. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanismNeuroimage. (2014)
  846. Møller SE, Kirk L, Honoré P. Relationship between plasma ratio of tryptophan to competing amino acids and the response to L-tryptophan treatment in endogenously depressed patientsJ Affect Disord. (1980)