Srvátková bielkovina

Whey Protein

Pôsobí na: rast svalov a cvičenie, úbytok tuku, alergiu a imunitu, krvný obeh, protizápalovo, zachovanie celkového zdravia

Srvátková a kazeínová bielkovina sa získavajú z mlieka. Srvátková bielkovina je populárna pre jej dobrú stráviteľnosť a dobre preskúmané účinky na rast svalov.


Dávkovanie závisí od individuálnych denných bielkovinových cieľov. Napr. atlét, alebo veľmi aktívny človek pokúšajúci sa odbúrať telesný tuk ale zachovať svalovú hmotu potrebuje denne prijať 1,5-2,2 g/kg telesnej hmotnosti. Pre prevažne sediaceho, človeka, ktorý sa nepokúša zmeniť zloženie tela postačuje dávka 0,8 g/kg telesnej hmotnosti. Ak sa denná dávka dosiahne prostredníctvom stravy, nie je potrebné užívanie doplnkov. Obézny ľudia by sa nemali držať týchto odporúčaných dávok, pretože prepočet na telesnú hmotnosť by vyústil do veľmi vysokých dávok.

Medicínske upozornenie!


  1. Carunchia Whetstine ME, Croissant AE, Drake MA. Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavorJ Dairy Sci. (2005)
  2. Off-flavors of whey protein concentrates: A literature review.
  3. Leksrisompong P, et al. Bitter taste inhibiting agents for whey protein hydrolysate and whey protein hydrolysate beveragesJ Food Sci. (2012)
  4. Haraguchi T, et al. Synergistic effects of sour taste and low temperature in suppressing the bitterness of Aminoleban® ENChem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). (2011)
  5. Levenhagen DK, et al. Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humansMed Sci Sports Exerc. (2002)
  6. Nomenclature of the Proteins of Cows’ Milk—Sixth Revision.
  7. Abd El-Fattah AM, et al. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cowsBMC Vet Res. (2012)
  8. Zhang H, et al. Changes in chemical composition of Alxa bactrian camel milk during lactationJ Dairy Sci. (2005)
  9. Morin DE, et al. Composition of milk from llamas in the United StatesJ Dairy Sci. (1995)
  10. Adkins Y, et al. Changes in nutrient and protein composition of cat milk during lactationAm J Vet Res. (1997)
  11. Jenness R. The composition of human milkSemin Perinatol. (1979)
  12. Ye X, Yoshida S, Ng TB. Isolation of lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin B and beta-lactoglobulin A from bovine rennet whey using ion exchange chromatographyInt J Biochem Cell Biol. (2000)
  13. Conti A, et al. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin H: isolation by preparative isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients and preliminary characterizationJ Biochem Biophys Methods. (1988)
  14. Godovac-Zimmermann J, et al. Isolation and rapid sequence characterization of two novel bovine beta-lactoglobulins I and JJ Protein Chem. (1996)
  15. Godovac-Zimmermann J, et al. Genetic variants of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. A novel wild-type beta-lactoglobulin W and its primary sequenceBiol Chem Hoppe Seyler. (1990)
  16. Sousa GT, et al. Dietary whey protein lessens several risk factors for metabolic diseases: a reviewLipids Health Dis. (2012)
  17. Heine WE, Klein PD, Reeds PJ. The importance of alpha-lactalbumin in infant nutritionJ Nutr. (1991)
  18. Rapid confirmation and revision of the primary structure of bovineserumalbumin by ESIMS and frit-FAB LC/MS.
  19. Carter DC, Ho JX. Structure of serum albuminAdv Protein Chem. (1994)
  20. Keogh JB, et al. Effect of glycomacropeptide fractions on cholecystokinin and food intakeBr J Nutr. (2010)
  21. Kissileff HR, et al. C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in manAm J Clin Nutr. (1981)
  22. Pi-Sunyer X, et al. C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin decreases food intake in obese menPhysiol Behav. (1982)
  23. Burton-Freeman BM. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is not critical to whey-induced satiety, but may have a unique role in energy intake regulation through cholecystokinin (CCK)Physiol Behav. (2008)
  24. Legrand D, et al. Lactoferrin structure and functionsAdv Exp Med Biol. (2008)
  25. Duarte DC, et al. The effect of bovine milk lactoferrin on human breast cancer cell linesJ Dairy Sci. (2011)
  26. Riechel P, et al. Analysis of bovine lactoferrin in whey using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)Adv Exp Med Biol. (1998)
  27. Ballard KD, et al. Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trialNutr J. (2009)
  28. Ballard KD, et al. Acute effects of ingestion of a novel whey-derived extract on vascular endothelial function in overweight, middle-aged men and womenBr J Nutr. (2012)
  29. Cabanos C, et al. High-level production of lactostatin, a hypocholesterolemic peptide, in transgenic rice using soybean A1aB1b as carrierTransgenic Res. (2012)
  30. Sindayikengera S, Xia WS. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from ProtamexJ Zhejiang Univ Sci B. (2006)
  31. Nilsson M, Holst JJ, Björck IM. Metabolic effects of amino acid mixtures and whey protein in healthy subjects: studies using glucose-equivalent drinksAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  32. Tienstra PA, et al. Assessment of the capabilities of capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of hippuric and orotic acid in wheyJ Chromatogr. (1992)
  33. Izumi H, et al. Bovine milk contains microRNA and messenger RNA that are stable under degradative conditionsJ Dairy Sci. (2012)
  34. Oddy WH, et al. TGF-beta in human milk is associated with wheeze in infancyJ Allergy Clin Immunol. (2003)
  35. Hering NA, et al. Transforming growth factor-ß, a whey protein component, strengthens the intestinal barrier by upregulating claudin-4 in HT-29/B6 cellsJ Nutr. (2011)
  36. Bounous G. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatmentAnticancer Res. (2000)
  37. Micke P, et al. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patientsEur J Clin Invest. (2001)
  38. Micke P, Beeh KM, Buhl R. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patientsEur J Nutr. (2002)
  39. Sekhar RV, et al. Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementationAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  40. Bounous G, et al. The influence of dietary whey protein on tissue glutathione and the diseases of agingClin Invest Med. (1989)
  41. Lands LC, et al. Dietary supplementation with pressurized whey in patients with cystic fibrosisJ Med Food. (2010)
  42. Lands LC, et al. Lymphocyte glutathione levels in children with cystic fibrosisChest. (1999)
  43. Grey V, et al. Improved glutathione status in young adult patients with cystic fibrosis supplemented with whey proteinJ Cyst Fibros. (2003)
  44. Zavorsky GS, et al. An open-label dose-response study of lymphocyte glutathione levels in healthy men and women receiving pressurized whey protein isolate supplementsInt J Food Sci Nutr. (2007)
  45. Sheikholeslami Vatani D, Ahmadi Kani Golzar F. Changes in antioxidant status and cardiovascular risk factors of overweight young men after six weeks supplementation of whey protein isolate and resistance trainingAppetite. (2012)
  46. Wang R. Is H2S a stinky remedy for atherosclerosisArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2009)
  47. Jain SK. L-Cysteine supplementation as an adjuvant therapy for type-2 diabetesCan J Physiol Pharmacol. (2012)
  48. Jha S, et al. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of antioxidant and antiapoptotic signalingAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. (2008)
  49. Beard RS Jr, Bearden SE. Vascular complications of cystathionine ß-synthase deficiency: future directions for homocysteine-to-hydrogen sulfide researchAm J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. (2011)
  50. Yang G, et al. H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyaseScience. (2008)
  51. Jain SK, et al. Low levels of hydrogen sulfide in the blood of diabetes patients and streptozotocin-treated rats causes vascular inflammationAntioxid Redox Signal. (2010)
  52. Ishigami M, et al. A source of hydrogen sulfide and a mechanism of its release in the brainAntioxid Redox Signal. (2009)
  53. Shibuya N, et al. 3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase produces hydrogen sulfide and bound sulfane sulfur in the brainAntioxid Redox Signal. (2009)
  54. Vascular Endothelium Expresses 3-Mercaptopyruvate Sulfurtransferase and Produces Hydrogen Sulfide.
  55. Cai WJ, et al. The novel proangiogenic effect of hydrogen sulfide is dependent on Akt phosphorylationCardiovasc Res. (2007)
  56. Wang Y, et al. Role of hydrogen sulfide in the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout miceArterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. (2009)
  57. Whiteman M, et al. Adiposity is a major determinant of plasma levels of the novel vasodilator hydrogen sulphideDiabetologia. (2010)
  58. Potier M, Tomé D. Comparison of digestibility and quality of intact proteins with their respective hydrolysatesJ AOAC Int. (2008)
  59. Alexander DD, Cabana MD. Partially hydrolyzed 100% whey protein infant formula and reduced risk of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysisJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. (2010)
  60. Alexander DD, et al. Partially hydrolyzed 100% whey protein infant formula and atopic dermatitis risk reduction: a systematic review of the literatureNutr Rev. (2010)
  61. von Berg A, et al. Certain hydrolyzed formulas reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis but not that of asthma: three-year results of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention StudyJ Allergy Clin Immunol. (2007)
  62. Pennings B, et al. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older menAm J Clin Nutr. (2011)
  63. Buckley JD, et al. Supplementation with a whey protein hydrolysate enhances recovery of muscle force-generating capacity following eccentric exerciseJ Sci Med Sport. (2010)
  64. Characterization of ultrafiltration membranes. Part II — Mass transport measurements for low and high molecular weight synthetic polymers in water solutions.
  65. Marella C, Muthukumarappan K, Metzger LE. Evaluation of commercially available, wide-pore ultrafiltration membranes for production of a-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein concentrateJ Dairy Sci. (2011)
  66. Cheang B, Zydney AL. Separation of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin using membrane ultrafiltrationBiotechnol Bioeng. (2003)
  67. McDonough FE, et al. Composition and properties of whey protein concentrates from ultrafiltrationJ Dairy Sci. (1974)
  68. Hall WL, et al. Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetiteBr J Nutr. (2003)
  69. Mishima Y, et al. Gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals at various temperatures: effect of meal temperature for gastric emptyingJ Gastroenterol. (2009)
  70. Lorient D, Linden G. Dephosphorylation of bovine casein by milk alkaline phosphataseJ Dairy Res. (1976)
  71. Li-Chan E, Nakai S. Enzymic dephosphorylation of bovine casein to improve acid clotting properties and digestibility for infant formulaJ Dairy Res. (1989)
  72. Mahé S, et al. Gastrojejunal kinetics and the digestion of {15N}beta-lactoglobulin and casein in humans: the influence of the nature and quantity of the proteinAm J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  73. Power O, Hallihan A, Jakeman P. Human insulinotropic response to oral ingestion of native and hydrolysed whey proteinAmino Acids. (2009)
  74. Calbet JA, Holst JJ. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humansEur J Nutr. (2004)
  75. Boirie Y, et al. Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretionProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (1997)
  76. Tipton KD, et al. Ingestion of casein and whey proteins result in muscle anabolism after resistance exerciseMed Sci Sports Exerc. (2004)
  77. Reitelseder S, et al. Whey and casein labeled with L-{1-13C}leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestionAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2011)
  78. Pal S, Ellis V. The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean menBr J Nutr. (2010)
  79. The digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retention.
  80. Murakami M, et al. Structural analysis of a new anti-hypertensive peptide (beta-lactosin B) isolated from a commercial whey productJ Dairy Sci. (2004)
  81. Tavares T, et al. Novel whey-derived peptides with inhibitory effect against angiotensin-converting enzyme: in vitro effect and stability to gastrointestinal enzymesPeptides. (2011)
  82. Tavares T, et al. Acute effect of whey peptides upon blood pressure of hypertensive rats, and relationship with their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activityMol Nutr Food Res. (2012)
  83. Weimann C, Meisel H, Erhardt G. Short communication: bovine kappa-casein variants result in different angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptidesJ Dairy Sci. (2009)
  84. Welderufael FT, Gibson T, Jauregi P. Production of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from ß-lactoglobulin- and casein-derived peptides: an integrative approachBiotechnol Prog. (2012)
  85. Nakamura Y, et al. Antihypertensive effect of sour milk and peptides isolated from it that are inhibitors to angiotensin I-converting enzymeJ Dairy Sci. (1995)
  86. Sipola M, et al. Long-term intake of milk peptides attenuates development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive ratsJ Physiol Pharmacol. (2001)
  87. Murakami I, et al. Enhancement or Suppression of ACE Inhibitory Activity by a Mixture of Tea and Foods for Specified Health Uses (FOSHU) That Are Marketed as „Support for Normal Blood Pressure“ISRN Pharm. (2011)
  88. Hodgson JM, et al. Long-term effects of a protein-enriched diet on blood pressure in older womenBr J Nutr. (2012)
  89. Lee YM, et al. Effect of a milk drink supplemented with whey peptides on blood pressure in patients with mild hypertensionEur J Nutr. (2007)
  90. Seppo L, et al. A fermented milk high in bioactive peptides has a blood pressure-lowering effect in hypertensive subjectsAm J Clin Nutr. (2003)
  91. Pal S, Ellis V. The chronic effects of whey proteins on blood pressure, vascular function, and inflammatory markers in overweight individualsObesity (Silver Spring). (2010)
  92. Pal S, Ellis V. Acute effects of whey protein isolate on blood pressure, vascular function and inflammatory markers in overweight postmenopausal womenBr J Nutr. (2011)
  93. Gentilcore D, et al. Effects of intraduodenal glucose, fat, and protein on blood pressure, heart rate, and splanchnic blood flow in healthy older subjectsAm J Clin Nutr. (2008)
  94. Pal S, Ellis V, Ho S. Acute effects of whey protein isolate on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight, post-menopausal womenAtherosclerosis. (2010)
  95. Holmer-Jensen J, et al. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjectsNutr J. (2011)
  96. Koenen RR, et al. Disrupting functional interactions between platelet chemokines inhibits atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic miceNat Med. (2009)
  97. Mortensen LS, et al. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod proteinAm J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  98. Morifuji M, et al. Post-exercise carbohydrate plus whey protein hydrolysates supplementation increases skeletal muscle glycogen level in ratsAmino Acids. (2010)
  99. Kanda A, et al. Dietary Whey Protein Hydrolysates Increase Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Levels via Activation of Glycogen Synthase in MiceJ Agric Food Chem. (2012)
  100. Morifuji M, et al. Branched-chain amino acid-containing dipeptides, identified from whey protein hydrolysates, stimulate glucose uptake rate in L6 myotubes and isolated skeletal musclesJ Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2009)
  101. Fei YJ, et al. cDNA structure, genomic organization, and promoter analysis of the mouse intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1Biochim Biophys Acta. (2000)
  102. Chitapanarux T, et al. Open-labeled pilot study of cysteine-rich whey protein isolate supplementation for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis patientsJ Gastroenterol Hepatol. (2009)
  103. Rains JL, Jain SK. Oxidative stress, insulin signaling, and diabetesFree Radic Biol Med. (2011)
  104. Dröge W. Oxidative stress and ageing: is ageing a cysteine deficiency syndromePhilos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (2005)
  105. Haber CA, et al. N-acetylcysteine and taurine prevent hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance in vivo: possible role of oxidative stressAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2003)
  106. Blouet C, et al. Meal cysteine improves postprandial glucose control in rats fed a high-sucrose mealJ Nutr Biochem. (2007)
  107. Blouet C, et al. Dietary cysteine alleviates sucrose-induced oxidative stress and insulin resistanceFree Radic Biol Med. (2007)
  108. Song D, Hutchings S, Pang CC. Chronic N-acetylcysteine prevents fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in ratsEur J Pharmacol. (2005)
  109. Diniz YS, et al. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on sucrose-rich diet-induced hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in ratsEur J Pharmacol. (2006)
  110. Jain SK, et al. L-cysteine supplementation lowers blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, CRP, MCP-1, and oxidative stress and inhibits NF-kappaB activation in the livers of Zucker diabetic ratsFree Radic Biol Med. (2009)
  111. Supplementation of N-acetylcysteine inhibits NF?B activation and protects against alloxan-induced diabetes in CD-1 mice.
  112. Pieper GM, Siebeneich W. Oral administration of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, abrogates diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunctionJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol. (1998)
  113. Prevention of glucose toxicity in HIT-T15 cells and Zucker diabetic fatty rats by antioxidants.
  114. Kaneto H, et al. Beneficial effects of antioxidants in diabetes: possible protection of pancreatic beta-cells against glucose toxicityDiabetes. (1999)
  115. Frid AH, et al. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjectsAm J Clin Nutr. (2005)
  116. Abrahão V. Nourishing the dysfunctional gut and whey proteinCurr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2012)
  117. Liu X, et al. Whey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed ratsAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2009)
  118. Ten Have GA, et al. Absence of post-prandial gut anabolism after intake of a low quality protein mealClin Nutr. (2012)
  119. Benjamin J, et al. Glutamine and whey protein improve intestinal permeability and morphology in patients with Crohn’s disease: a randomized controlled trialDig Dis Sci. (2012)
  120. Bortolotti M, et al. Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patientsClin Nutr. (2011)
  121. Elattar G, et al. The use of whey protein concentrate in management of chronic hepatitis C virus – a pilot studyArch Med Sci. (2010)
  122. Hamad EM, et al. Protective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in ratsLipids Health Dis. (2011)
  123. Haraguchi FK, et al. Whey protein precludes lipid and protein oxidation and improves body weight gain in resistance-exercised ratsEur J Nutr. (2011)
  124. Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O. Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletesInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000)
  125. Friedman AN, et al. Comparative effects of low-carbohydrate high-protein versus low-fat diets on the kidneyClin J Am Soc Nephrol. (2012)
  126. Brinkworth GD, et al. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate dietJ Am Diet Assoc. (2010)
  127. Cornish SM, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid combined with creatine monohydrate and whey protein supplementation during strength trainingInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2009)
  128. Kasiske BL, et al. Effects of carbohydrate restriction on renal injury in the obese Zucker ratAm J Clin Nutr. (1986)
  129. Effect on renal haemodynamics, glomerular filtration rate and albumin excretion of high oral protein load.
  130. Kontessis P, et al. Renal, metabolic and hormonal responses to ingestion of animal and vegetable proteinsKidney Int. (1990)
  131. Kontessis PA, et al. Renal, metabolic, and hormonal responses to proteins of different origin in normotensive, nonproteinuric type I diabetic patientsDiabetes Care. (1995)
  132. Wiseman MJ, et al. Dietary composition and renal function in healthy subjectsNephron. (1987)
  133. PULLMAN TN, et al. The influence of dietary protein intake on specific renal functions in normal manJ Lab Clin Med. (1954)
  134. Brändle E, Sieberth HG, Hautmann RE. Effect of chronic dietary protein intake on the renal function in healthy subjectsEur J Clin Nutr. (1996)
  135. Effect of protein-restricted diet on renal response to a meat meal in humans.
  136. Skov AR, et al. Changes in renal function during weight loss induced by high vs low-protein low-fat diets in overweight subjectsInt J Obes Relat Metab Disord. (1999)
  137. Friedman AN. High-protein diets: potential effects on the kidney in renal health and diseaseAm J Kidney Dis. (2004)
  138. Brenner BM, Meyer TW, Hostetter TH. Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney disease: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal diseaseN Engl J Med. (1982)
  139. Ambühl PM. Protein intake in renal and hepatic diseaseInt J Vitam Nutr Res. (2011)
  140. Markus CR, et al. The bovine protein alpha-lactalbumin increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to the other large neutral amino acids, and in vulnerable subjects raises brain serotonin activity, reduces cortisol concentration, and improves mood under stressAm J Clin Nutr. (2000)
  141. Citraro R, et al. Preclinical activity profile of a-lactoalbumin, a whey protein rich in tryptophan, in rodent models of seizures and epilepsyEpilepsy Res. (2011)
  142. Mainardi P, Leonardi A, Albano C. Potentiation of brain serotonin activity may inhibit seizures, especially in drug-resistant epilepsyMed Hypotheses. (2008)
  143. Errichiello L, et al. A proof-of-concept trial of the whey protein alfa-lactalbumin in chronic cortical myoclonusMov Disord. (2011)
  144. Rusu D, et al. A bovine whey protein extract can enhance innate immunity by priming normal human blood neutrophilsJ Nutr. (2009)
  145. Migliore-Samour D, et al. Effects of tripeptides derived from milk proteins on polymorphonuclear oxidative and phosphoinositide metabolismsBiochem Pharmacol. (1992)
  146. Li EW, Mine Y. Immunoenhancing effects of bovine glycomacropeptide and its derivatives on the proliferative response and phagocytic activities of human macrophagelike cells, U937J Agric Food Chem. (2004)
  147. Wong KF, et al. Immunostimulation of murine spleen cells by materials associated with bovine milk protein fractionsJ Dairy Sci. (1998)
  148. Ebert EC, Roberts AI. Lamina propria lymphocytes produce interferon-gamma and develop suppressor activity in response to lactoglobulinDig Dis Sci. (2001)
  149. Wong CW, et al. Effects of purified bovine whey factors on cellular immune functions in ruminantsVet Immunol Immunopathol. (1997)
  150. Bovine Glycomacropeptide Is Anti-Inflammatory in Rats with Hapten-Induced Colitis.
  151. Zemel MB, et al. Effects of dairy compared with soy on oxidative and inflammatory stress in overweight and obese subjectsAm J Clin Nutr. (2010)
  152. Panagiotakos DB, et al. Dairy products consumption is associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers related to cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: the ATTICA studyJ Am Coll Nutr. (2010)
  153. Kennedy RS, et al. The use of a whey protein concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma: a phase I-II clinical studyAnticancer Res. (1995)
  154. Kanwar JR, et al. ‚Iron-saturated‘ lactoferrin is a potent natural adjuvant for augmenting cancer chemotherapyImmunol Cell Biol. (2008)
  155. Burrow H, Kanwar RK, Kanwar JR. Antioxidant enzyme activities of iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) in human gut epithelial cells under oxidative stressMed Chem. (2011)
  156. Roseanu A, et al. Liposomalization of lactoferrin enhanced its anti-tumoral effects on melanoma cellsBiometals. (2010)
  157. Castro GA, et al. In vitro impact of a whey protein isolate (WPI) and collagen hydrolysates (CHs) on B16F10 melanoma cells proliferationJ Dermatol Sci. (2009)
  158. Xu XX, et al. Apoptosis of stomach cancer cell SGC-7901 and regulation of Akt signaling way induced by bovine lactoferrinJ Dairy Sci. (2010)
  159. Li D, et al. Binding of lactoferrin to IGBP1 triggers apoptosis in a lung adenocarcinoma cell lineAnticancer Res. (2011)
  160. Furlong SJ, Mader JS, Hoskin DW. Bovine lactoferricin induces caspase-independent apoptosis in human B-lymphoma cells and extends the survival of immune-deficient mice bearing B-lymphoma xenograftsExp Mol Pathol. (2010)
  161. Kozu T, et al. Effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin on the growth of adenomatous colorectal polyps in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trialCancer Prev Res (Phila). (2009)
  162. Tsuda H, et al. Cancer prevention by bovine lactoferrin: from animal studies to human trialBiometals. (2010)
  163. Gibbons JA, Kanwar RK, Kanwar JR. Lactoferrin and cancer in different cancer modelsFront Biosci (Schol Ed). (2011)
  164. Dillon EL, et al. Cancer cachexia and anabolic interventions: a case reportJ Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. (2012)
  165. Deutz NE, et al. Muscle protein synthesis in cancer patients can be stimulated with a specially formulated medical foodClin Nutr. (2011)
  166. Hulmi JJ, et al. The effects of whey protein on myostatin and cell cycle-related gene expression responses to a single heavy resistance exercise bout in trained older menEur J Appl Physiol. (2008)
  167. Hulmi JJ, et al. Resistance exercise with whey protein ingestion affects mTOR signaling pathway and myostatin in menJ Appl Physiol. (2009)
  168. Hulmi JJ, et al. Acute and long-term effects of resistance exercise with or without protein ingestion on muscle hypertrophy and gene expressionAmino Acids. (2009)
  169. Bunn JA, et al. Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation Does Not Alter Proteolytic Gene Expression following ImmobilizationJ Nutr Metab. (2011)
  170. Moore DR, et al. Resistance exercise enhances mTOR and MAPK signalling in human muscle over that seen at rest after bolus protein ingestionActa Physiol (Oxf). (2011)
  171. Biolo G, et al. An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle proteinAm J Physiol. (1997)
  172. Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids.
  173. Burd NA, et al. Enhanced amino acid sensitivity of myofibrillar protein synthesis persists for up to 24 h after resistance exercise in young menJ Nutr. (2011)
  174. Yang Y, et al. Resistance exercise enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis with graded intakes of whey protein in older menBr J Nutr. (2012)
  175. Moore DR, et al. Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young menAm J Clin Nutr. (2009)
  176. Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistance-trained menInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2009)
  177. Kerksick CM, et al. The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations during ten weeks of resistance trainingJ Strength Cond Res. (2006)
  178. Andersen LL, et al. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strengthMetabolism. (2005)
  179. Hartman JW, et al. Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightliftersAm J Clin Nutr. (2007)
  180. Weisgarber KD, Candow DG, Vogt E SM. Whey Protein Before and During Resistance Exercise Has No Effect on Muscle Mass and Strength in Untrained Young AdultsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2012)
  181. Kukuljan S, et al. Effects of resistance exercise and fortified milk on skeletal muscle mass, muscle size, and functional performance in middle-aged and older men: an 18-mo randomized controlled trialJ Appl Physiol. (2009)
  182. Candow DG, et al. Protein supplementation before and after resistance training in older menEur J Appl Physiol. (2006)
  183. Weinheimer EM, et al. Whey protein supplementation does not affect exercise training-induced changes in body composition and indices of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged overweight and obese adultsJ Nutr. (2012)
  184. Dangin M, et al. The rate of protein digestion affects protein gain differently during aging in humansJ Physiol. (2003)
  185. Dideriksen KJ, et al. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individualsScand J Med Sci Sports. (2011)
  186. Wycherley TP, et al. Timing of protein ingestion relative to resistance exercise training does not influence body composition, energy expenditure, glycaemic control or cardiometabolic risk factors in a hypocaloric, high protein diet in patients with type 2 diabetesDiabetes Obes Metab. (2010)
  187. Esmarck B, et al. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humansJ Physiol. (2001)
  188. Jordan LY, et al. Nitrogen balance in older individuals in energy balance depends on timing of protein intakeJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2010)
  189. Tipton KD, et al. Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exerciseAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2001)
  190. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise.
  191. Levenhagen DK, et al. Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasisAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2001)
  192. Hoffman JR, et al. Effect of a proprietary protein supplement on recovery indices following resistance exercise in strength/power athletesAmino Acids. (2010)
  193. Etheridge T, Philp A, Watt PW. A single protein meal increases recovery of muscle function following an acute eccentric exercise boutAppl Physiol Nutr Metab. (2008)
  194. Ratamess NA, et al. The effects of amino acid supplementation on muscular performance during resistance training overreachingJ Strength Cond Res. (2003)
  195. Nosaka K, Sacco P, Mawatari K. Effects of amino acid supplementation on muscle soreness and damageInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2006)
  196. Shimomura Y, et al. Nutraceutical effects of branched-chain amino acids on skeletal muscleJ Nutr. (2006)
  197. Bouthegourd JC, et al. A preexercise alpha-lactalbumin-enriched whey protein meal preserves lipid oxidation and decreases adiposity in ratsAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2002)
  198. Lorenzen J, et al. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet-induced thermogenesisEur J Clin Nutr. (2012)
  199. Hackney KJ, Bruenger AJ, Lemmer JT. Timing protein intake increases energy expenditure 24 h after resistance trainingMed Sci Sports Exerc. (2010)
  200. Baer DJ, et al. Whey protein but not soy protein supplementation alters body weight and composition in free-living overweight and obese adultsJ Nutr. (2011)
  201. Khalil DA, et al. Soy protein supplementation increases serum insulin-like growth factor-I in young and old men but does not affect markers of bone metabolismJ Nutr. (2002)
  202. Zhou J, et al. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in ratsObesity (Silver Spring). (2011)
  203. Lam SM, et al. The influence of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on satiety in adult humansPhysiol Behav. (2009)
  204. Luhovyy BL, Akhavan T, Anderson GH. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satietyJ Am Coll Nutr. (2007)
  205. Abou Samra R, et al. Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starterNutr J. (2011)
  206. Effect of premeal consumption of whey protein and its hydrolysate on food intake and postmeal glycemia and insulin responses in young adults.
  207. Poppitt SD, et al. Low-dose whey protein-enriched water beverages alter satiety in a study of overweight womenAppetite. (2011)
  208. Astbury NM, et al. Dose-response effect of a whey protein preload on within-day energy intake in lean subjectsBr J Nutr. (2010)
  209. Frestedt JL, et al. A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical studyNutr Metab (Lond). (2008)
  210. Zhu K, et al. The effects of a two-year randomized, controlled trial of whey protein supplementation on bone structure, IGF-1, and urinary calcium excretion in older postmenopausal womenJ Bone Miner Res. (2011)
  211. Rennie MJ, et al. Control of the size of the human muscle massAnnu Rev Physiol. (2004)
  212. Cuthbertson D, et al. Anabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscleFASEB J. (2005)
  213. Nutrient signalling in the regulation of human muscle protein synthesis.
  214. Leucine supplementation improves muscle protein synthesis in elderly men independently of hyperaminoacidaemia.
  215. Tang JE, et al. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young menJ Appl Physiol. (2009)
  216. Whey protein stimulates postprandial muscle protein accretion more effectively than do casein and casein hydrolysate in older men.
  217. Dangin M, et al. The digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retentionAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2001)
  218. Engelen MP, et al. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseMetabolism. (2012)
  219. Pal S, Ellis V, Dhaliwal S. Effects of whey protein isolate on body composition, lipids, insulin and glucose in overweight and obese individualsBr J Nutr. (2010)
  220. Haraguchi FK, et al. Evaluation of biological and biochemical quality of whey proteinJ Med Food. (2010)
  221. de Aguilar-Nascimento JE, Prado Silveira BR, Dock-Nascimento DB. Early enteral nutrition with whey protein or casein in elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke: a double-blind randomized trialNutrition. (2011)
  222. Candow DG, et al. Effect of whey and soy protein supplementation combined with resistance training in young adultsInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2006)
  223. Hays NP, et al. Effects of whey and fortified collagen hydrolysate protein supplements on nitrogen balance and body composition in older womenJ Am Diet Assoc. (2009)
  224. Howarth KR, et al. Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humansJ Appl Physiol. (2009)
  225. Breen L, et al. The influence of carbohydrate-protein co-ingestion following endurance exercise on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesisJ Physiol. (2011)
  226. Koopman R, et al. Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjectsAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2005)
  227. Koopman R, et al. Co-ingestion of leucine with protein does not further augment post-exercise muscle protein synthesis rates in elderly menBr J Nutr. (2008)
  228. Koopman R, et al. Co-ingestion of protein and leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates to the same extent in young and elderly lean menAm J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  229. Churchward-Venne TA, et al. Supplementation of a suboptimal protein dose with leucine or essential amino acids: effects on myofibrillar protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in menJ Physiol. (2012)
  230. Rodondi A, et al. Zinc increases the effects of essential amino acids-whey protein supplements in frail elderlyJ Nutr Health Aging. (2009)
  231. Chevalley T, et al. Early serum IGF-I response to oral protein supplements in elderly women with a recent hip fractureClin Nutr. (2010)
  232. Schürch MA, et al. Protein supplements increase serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and attenuate proximal femur bone loss in patients with recent hip fracture. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialAnn Intern Med. (1998)
  233. Oben J, Kothari SC, Anderson ML. An open label study to determine the effects of an oral proteolytic enzyme system on whey protein concentrate metabolism in healthy malesJ Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2008)
  234. Pettersson-Kastberg J, et al. alpha-Lactalbumin, engineered to be nonnative and inactive, kills tumor cells when in complex with oleic acid: a new biological function resulting from partial unfoldingJ Mol Biol. (2009)
  235. Apoptosis induced by a human milk protein.
  236. Svensson M, et al. Conversion of alpha-lactalbumin to a protein inducing apoptosisProc Natl Acad Sci U S A. (2000)
  237. Permyakov SE, et al. A novel method for preparation of HAMLET-like protein complexesBiochimie. (2011)
  238. Hakansson AP, et al. Apoptosis-like death in bacteria induced by HAMLET, a human milk lipid-protein complexPLoS One. (2011)
  239. Svensson M, et al. Hamlet–a complex from human milk that induces apoptosis in tumor cells but spares healthy cellsAdv Exp Med Biol. (2002)
  240. Permyakov SE, et al. Oleic acid is a key cytotoxic component of HAMLET-like complexesBiol Chem. (2012)
  241. Lisková K, et al. Effect of denaturation of alpha-lactalbumin on the formation of BAMLET (bovine alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells)J Agric Food Chem. (2010)
  242. Pettersson J, Mossberg AK, Svanborg C. alpha-Lactalbumin species variation, HAMLET formation, and tumor cell deathBiochem Biophys Res Commun. (2006)
  243. Brinkmann CR, et al. Preparation and comparison of cytotoxic complexes formed between oleic acid and either bovine or human a-lactalbuminJ Dairy Sci. (2011)
  244. Optimization of thermal pretreatment conditions for the separation of native alpha-lactalbumin from whey protein concentrates by means of selective denaturation of beta-lactoglobulin.
  245. Fast J, et al. Stability of HAMLET–a kinetically trapped alpha-lactalbumin oleic acid complexProtein Sci. (2005)
  246. Khan S, et al. Investigation of Short-term Variations in Casein and Whey Proteins in Breast Milk of Term MothersJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. (2012)
  247. Liao Y, et al. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation periodJ Proteome Res. (2011)
  248. Osborn DA, Sinn J. Formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infantsCochrane Database Syst Rev. (2006)
  249. Kucia M, et al. High-protein diet during gestation and lactation affects mammary gland mRNA abundance, milk composition and pre-weaning litter growth in miceAnimal. (2011)
  250. Mojtahedi MC, et al. The effects of a higher protein intake during energy restriction on changes in body composition and physical function in older womenJ Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. (2011)
  251. Pennings B, et al. Amino acid absorption and subsequent muscle protein accretion following graded intakes of whey protein in elderly menAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2012)
  252. Wolfe RR. The underappreciated role of muscle in health and diseaseAm J Clin Nutr. (2006)
  253. Cordero-MacIntyre ZR, et al. Reproducibility of DXA in obese womenJ Clin Densitom. (2002)
  254. Phillips SM. The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein countProc Nutr Soc. (2011)
  255. Dangin M, et al. Influence of the protein digestion rate on protein turnover in young and elderly subjectsJ Nutr. (2002)
  256. Mitchell CJ, et al. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young menPLoS One. (2014)
  257. Greenhaff PL, et al. Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signaling, ubiquitin ligases, and protein turnover in human muscleAm J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. (2008)
  258. Jespersen JG, et al. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patientsPLoS One. (2011)
  259. Lacey JM, Wilmore DW. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid?Nutr Rev. (1990)
  260. Antonio J, Street C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletesCan J Appl Physiol. (1999)
  261. Antonio J, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performanceJ Strength Cond Res. (2002)
  262. Candow DG, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adultsEur J Appl Physiol. (2001)
  263. Finn KJ, Lund R, Rosene-Treadwell M. Glutamine Supplementation did not Benefit Athletes During Short-Term Weight ReductionJ Sports Sci Med. (2003)
  264. Ramezani Ahmadi A, et al. The effect of glutamine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition, and immune function: A systematic review and a meta-analysis of clinical trialsClin Nutr. (2018)
  265. Bernfeld E, et al. Phospholipase D-Dependent mTORC1 Activation by GlutamineJournal of Biological Chemistry. (2018)
  266. Street B, Byrne C, Eston R. Glutamine Supplementation in Recovery From Eccentric Exercise Attenuates Strength Loss and Muscle SorenessJournal of Exercise Science and Fitness. (2011)
  267. Rahmani Nia F, et al. Effect of L-glutamine supplementation on electromyographic activity of the quadriceps muscle injured by eccentric exerciseIran J Basic Med Sci. (2013)
  268. Waldron M, et al. The effects of acute leucine or leucine-glutamine co-ingestion on recovery from eccentrically biased exerciseAmino Acids. (2018)
  269. Legault Z, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric ExerciseInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2015)
  270. Li P, et al. Amino acids and immune functionBr J Nutr. (2007)
  271. Castell LM. Can glutamine modify the apparent immunodepression observed after prolonged, exhaustive exercise?Nutrition. (2002)
  272. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes?Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. (1996)
  273. Krzywkowski K, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced changes in lymphocyte functionAm J Physiol Cell Physiol. (2001)
  274. Walsh NP, et al. Effect of oral glutamine supplementation on human neutrophil lipopolysaccharide-stimulated degranulation following prolonged exerciseInt J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. (2000)
  275. Krzywkowski K, et al. Effect of glutamine and protein supplementation on exercise-induced decreases in salivary IgAJ Appl Physiol (1985). (2001)
  276. Hiscock N, Pedersen BK. Exercise-induced immunodepression- plasma glutamine is not the linkJ Appl Physiol (1985). (2002)
  277. Dokladny K, Zuhl MN, Moseley PL. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exerciseJ Appl Physiol (1985). (2016)
  278. Pugh JN, et al. Glutamine supplementation reduces markers of intestinal permeability during running in the heat in a dose-dependent mannerEur J Appl Physiol. (2017)
  279. Zuhl M, et al. The effects of acute oral glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced gastrointestinal permeability and heat shock protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cellsCell Stress Chaperones. (2015)
  280. Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal healthJ AOAC Int. (2012)
  281. MacLean DA, Graham TE, Saltin B. Branched-chain amino acids augment ammonia metabolism while attenuating protein breakdown during exerciseAm J Physiol. (1994)
  282. EASTOE JE. The amino acid composition of mammalian collagen and gelatinBiochem J. (1955)
  283. Zdzieblik D, et al. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trialBr J Nutr. (2015)
  284. Rutherfurd SM, et al. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores and digestible indispensable amino acid scores differentially describe protein quality in growing male ratsJ Nutr. (2015)
  285. Mathai JK, Liu Y, Stein HH. Values for digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) for some dairy and plant proteins may better describe protein quality than values calculated using the concept for protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS)Br J Nutr. (2017)